divendres, 31 d’octubre de 2014

HOW TO LOVE THE NEUTRON BOMB ....Können wir die Evolution zurückspulen - und aus einem Huhn einen Dinosaurier rekonstruieren? ▶ Spannender Bericht vom Abenteuer Paläontologie und faszinierender Einblick in die neue Wissenschaft von Evo-Devo und Reverse Evolution ▶ Fesselnde Lektüre an der Schnittstelle von Science-Fiction und Realität; aber keineswegs pure Spekulation, Buch lotet präzise die aktuelle Wissenschaft aus ▶ Mit Begeisterung geschrieben ▶ Jack Horner: Koryphäe der Saurierforschung ▶ wird kontroverse Debatten auslösen Können wir die Evolution zurückspulen? Wie viel Saurier steckt noch in einem Haushuhn? Und ist "ausgestorben" vielleicht gar nicht unwiderruflich? Evolution Ruckwarts: Auf Den Spuren Des Dinosauriers Im Huhn by Jack Horner, James Gorman, Sebastian Vogel Lassen Sie sich von einem weltberuhmten Palaontologen auf eine spannende Reise uber den ganzen Globus entfuhren: zu Fund- und Forschungsstatten, wo eine neue Wissenschaft Gestalt annimmt, die Science-Fiction-Fantasien Realitat werden lasst - etwa den Traum, einen Dinosaurier wieder zum Leben zu erwecken. Wir alle haben im Kino, in Buchern und Fernsehsendungen schon Dinosaurier gesehen - oder zumindest intelligenten Vermutungen daruber, wie diese Tiere wohl ausgesehen haben mogen. Aber was ware, wenn wir einen echten Dinosaurier rekonstruieren oder zuchten konnten, ohne dafur auf alte DNA angewiesen zu sein? Jack Horner, der als Wissenschaftler Steven Spielberg bei Jurassic Park beraten hat und und tatkraftig dazu beitragt, die Palaontologie ins 21. Jahrhundert zu bringen, lotet im vorliegenden Buch gemeinsam mit dem Wissenschaftsredakteur der New York Times eben diese Moglichkeiten aus. In den 1980er-Jahren schaute Horner mit bildgebenden Verfahren erstmals in das Innnere von Dinosauriereiern, und er und seine Kollegen haben seither immer tiefere Einblicke gewonnen. An der North Carolina State University hat Mary Schweitzer aus einem von Horner ausgegrabenen Tyrannosaurus rex-Fossil fossile Molekule extrahiert - Proteine, die 68 Millionen Jahre uberstanden haben. Und diese Proteine beweisen, dass T. rex und unser heutiges Huhn entfernte Verwandte sind. An der McGill University schliesslich versucht Hans Larsson, durch Manipulation von Huhnerembryonen den Dinosaurier in ihnen zu wecken: zunachst, indem sie einen Schwanz entwickeln, spater dann, indem ihnen die Gliedmassen eines Sauriers wachsen. All dies geschieht, ohne dass die Forscher ein einziges Gen verandern. Die Entdeckungen und Anwendungen, die aus dieser unglaublichen Forschung erwachsen, konnten uns uns eine Macht verleihen verleihen, die Angste weckt. Evolution ruckwarts ist eine Expedition zu den heissen Felsenwusten und den klimatisierten Labors, die an der vordersten Front dieser wissenschaftlichen Umwalzung stehen.

als erstes meldet sich ein Homo religiosus ssp or just ss-p libris DA GAMA extremus (=extrem religiöser GAMA CROSS UBERMensch) zu Wort und bestreitet die Evolutionstheorie. Aber in einem Punkt hat er Recht, die Theorie ist nicht unumstritten, dank ihm und seiner Artgenossen, nur bei den Homo sapiens sapiens (=denkender Mensch) und Homo sapiens religiosos (=denkender religiöser Mensch) ist die Theorie unbestritten. Aber da die Evolution ja weiter fortschreitet, besteht noch Hoffnung, dass sich die letzten Homo religiosos extremus zum Homo sapiens, egal welcher Unterart, weiterentwickeln. Übrigens, es gibt keine schönere Sonnabendunterhaltung auf dem Markplatz als Zeugen Jehovas DA GAMA BAIXA und andere Unbelehrbare mit ihren Theorien auszuhebeln; nutzt zwar nichts, weil eben unbelehrbar, aber der LIVRA-TE Spaßfaktor ist garantiert, wenn man auf Realsatire steht! Und richtig gemütlich wird es erst bei Hausbesuchen

NUCLEAR DOVES LIKE RUSSIAN EAGLES OVER THE EUROPEAN SKY He points out that Lenin was no moralist or humanitarian. It was Lenin who coined the term “dictatorship of the proletariat” which meant NO to democracy, NO to elections; and as the term implies a dictatorship by an authoritarian state. The secret police was integral in Lenin’s agenda. Mr. Service also points out that Russia (Soviet Union) was always a dual society. The top levels had only limited knowledge of what occurred away from the centre. At the bottom, reports and statistics were embellished to accord with the desires of the upper ruling stratas. This made corruption endemic at all layers of society – for the lower classes it would be the only way to survive. Khrushchev is portrayed as a partial reformer. It must be remembered that both Khrushchev and Brezhnev continued the repression in Eastern Europe. Gorbachev had the moral courage to stop this. The only drawback is that little is mentioned on the invasion of Afghanistan and the role it played in the demise and fracturing of the Soviet Union......the objective way in which it is written unlike most Western Historians who write on Russia with a huge political and ideological axe to grind. Robert Service lets the facts do the talking and conclusions are foregone but do not seem to be imposed on the reader. The overthrow of Nicholas II, Lenin days, degenerating into horror of Stalin's 'Terror and days of purge', Cold period of Khruschev followed by dreadiness of Breznev, International optimism under Gorbachov coupled with despair with the transition to market economy for Russians, collapse of one of the greatest empires of the world overnight in 1991, cementing nexus of politicians and Oligarchs under Yelstin is well captured in this book. One negative is that though the sub title says ' Nicholas II to PUT IN FOR PUTIN

A GOOD SERVICE....

corruption, that became endemic under the Brezhnev era with complacent, irresponsible management, and supplementing of income from other, often illegitimate, sources. Service reveals that by the time of the Brezhnev era, a deep cynicism was inbedded in the leadership that had scant regard for the actual ideals of communism, and instead sought little more than to preserve their hold on power. Such logic was behind the selection of the deathly ill Chernenko in the Kremlin succession of 1984, merely as a means to forestall a shakeup of the Soviet hierarchy.
Service gives coverage to the Perestroika era, which is similar to his study in Comrades, but perhaps with more detail. From the breakup of the USSR he covers the power struggles, and uncertainty of the Yeltsin era, and take the readers up to and including the succession of Medvedev and the 2008 5 day war in Georgia.
Service is praising of Russia's achivements in the post Soviet era, and is reasonably optimistic of Russia's future. 

By mid-2008, Russia’s currency reserves were the third highest in the world, behind only China and Japan. As an article in The National Interest in January 2009 noted: with a substantial amount of those funds held in the form of US government securities, Russia joined [China and Japan] as a leading financier of the US current-account deficit. It was a dramatic reversal of fortune over the course of a decade In addition, Russia’s nominal dollar GDP increased by more than eight times from 1999 to 2008. Meanwhile, Russia’s stock market capitalisation was over $1 trillion, the highest among the emerging markets. It achieved balance of payments surpluses every year since 2000 and between July 1999 and July 2008 its foreign exchange reserves grew from $12 billion to almost $600 billion In Europe fears of overdependence on Russian energy have mounted in recent years, particularly in light of what some see as Moscow’s increased use of energy as a tool for achieving its foreign policy goals. Russia’s gas dispute with Ukraine in January 2006 heightened Europe’s concerns over the reliability of Russia as an energy supplier. Fears of overdependence also stem from Moscow’s concerted attempts to acquire “down stream” assets in Europe, including pipelines, refineries, storage facilities and other infrastructure, which promise to increase Russia’s already sizeable influence over the European energy market with as yet unclear implications for European foreign policy. The issue of energy security and Moscow’s use of oil and gas as agents of Russian foreign and security policy have become major issues in Russian-European relationsThe West, in general, and the United States, in particular, constitute the central elements in the framing of Russian diplomacy. Russia’s policies around the world, including those towards the former Soviet states on its borders, are shaped profoundly by the dynamics of Moscow’s relationship with Washington. Framing its diplomacy by reference to the United States is in keeping with Russia’s image of itself as one of the world’s great powers. Russia’s relationship with the United States has been characterised by cycles of great expectations and profound disappointments. Boris Yeltsin and Bill Clinton sought to forge a strategic partnership but these hopes foundered on clashes of national interests over NATO enlargement and the wars in Bosnia, Kosovo and Chechnya. The Putin-Bush years repeated the cycle: from hailing the consummation of a strategic partnership in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, the relationship deteriorated to a position of bitterness and recrimination in 2008 following the conflict in Georgia, US plans for missile defence and unilateral US military action in Iraq. President Obama’s stated desire to “reset” US-Russian relations and the agreements reached between the new US president and his Russian counterpart in their first summit meeting in London in April 2009, appear to signal a new start in the bilateral relationship. However, despite the positive rhetoric, a number of contentious issues continue to divide Moscow and Washington. NATO expansion into areas Moscow considers its natural sphere of influence is a powerful and enduring irritant in the broader relationship between Russia and the West, as the conflict in Georgia starkly demonstrated. Russia favours the subordination of NATO to some new pan-European security structure. The Alliance’s eastwards expansion is seen by many in Russia as evidence of the West’s continuing determination to take advantage of Russian weakness and to contain and encircle Moscow. The conflict in Georgia led to a breakdown in NATO-Russian relations. There are signs that the relationship has started to recover, but Moscow remains highly suspicious of NATO and seems determined to prevent both Georgia and Ukraine from becoming members of the Alliance. In the aftermath of the conflict in Georgia, relations between Russia and the West reached their lowest point since the end of the Cold War. The conflict was both a direct cause of heightened tension and a reflection of a longer-term deterioration in the relationship that had been increasingly evident in recent years. In dealing a sudden shock to European security, the events of August 2008 had the effect of refocusing attention on the West’s relationship with Moscow. The conflict in the Caucasus initially led to further strains in relations, but eight months on, it has prompted renewed reflection on Russian foreign policy, its aims, sensitivities and motivating factors. In order to understand the direction of contemporary Russian foreign policy, it is necessary to appreciate the domestic context of diplomatic decision-making. Foreign policy in Russia has long been the preserve of the Kremlin which exercises near exclusive control over the diplomatic decision-making process. Yet, despite the institutional arrangements which formally govern foreign policy decision-making, arguably the greatest single determinant of contemporary Russian policy is the evolving relationship between Russia’s new president, Dmitri Medvedev, and his predecessor, and now prime minister, Vladimir Putin. Understanding the dynamics of that relationship is essential in any analysis of Russian foreign policy. Since Medvedev succeeded Putin as president, commentators initially saw Medvedev as little more than a Putin stooge, but over the past year – and particularly since the onset of the global financial crisis in late 2008 – it appears that Medvedev is beginning to emerge from the shadow of his mentor. During his eight-year presidency, Vladimir Putin undertook a series of steps to consolidate and extend the power of the Russian state and, within it, the authority of the Kremlin. By the close of the Putin presidency, Russia’s retreat from democracy had emerged as one of the most contentious issues in Moscow’s relationship with the West. As well as augmenting the power and authority of the state, the Kremlin’s policies have sought to limit foreign influence in internal Russian matters. To this end, Putin advanced the concept of “sovereign democracy” to describe Russia’s own unique brand of democratic development, shake off the tutelage of the West and to preserve Russian autonomy. In economic policy, too, the pursuit of national sovereignty and autonomy characterised Putin’s approach. The remarkable transformation of Russia’s economy over the past decade enabled the Kremlin to pursue an increasingly independent foreign policy. Rehabilitating the economy was one of Putin’s key priorities. In the ten years following the 1998 economic Donaldson, Robert H. Nogee, Joseph L. Subject(s): 1. RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS 2. USSR--FOREIGN RELATIONS Notes: Includes index. 'This book traces the lineage and evolution of Russian foreign policy to the present day, highlighting the continuities in Russia's behavior in the world, as well as the major sources of change and variability. The fourth edition includes coverage of ongoing issues connected with NATO expansion, the status of secessionist territories, responses to international terrorism, disputes over military installations and missile defense systems, and global issues of access to oil and gas supplies and other natural resources.''After the collapse of the Soviet Union expectations were high in both Russia and the West that a 'new world order' was emerging in which Russia and the other former Soviet republics would join the Western community of nations. That has not occurred. A group of analysts from Russia, Europe and North America explains here the reasons for this failure and assesses likely future developments in that relationship. The authors explore the importance of Western policies in the 1990s in 'nationalizing' Russian views of their interests; the commitment of President Putin to rebuilding Russia as a great power (beginning in former Soviet space); and the deterioration of Russian relations with the European Union and the United States during the first decade of the 21st century

Russian Energy Security and Foreign Policy - Abingdon, UK : Routledge. 
 xv, 253 p. : ill.; 24 cm. 
 (Routledge/GARNET Series : Europe in the World ; 13) 
 ISBN: 9780415547338 
 Subject(s): 
 1. ENERGY POLICY--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) 
 2. RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS--FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS 
 3. FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS--FOREIGN RELATIONS--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) 
 4. RUSSIA (FEDERATION)--FOREIGN RELATIONS 
 5. ENERGY SECURITY--RUSSIA (FEDERATION) 
 Added entry(s): 
 1. Dellecker, Adrian, ed. 
 2. Gomart, Thomas, ed. 
 Notes: 
 Bibliography: p. 238-246. Includes index. 
 'This book provides an original and thoroughly academic analysis 
 of the link between Russian energy and foreign policies in 
 Eurasia, as well as offering an interpretation of Russia's 
 coherence on the international stage, seeking to understand 
 Russia and explain its behaviour. The authors analyse both 
 energy and foreign policies together, in order to better grasp 
 their correlation and gain deeper understanding of broader 
 geopolitical issues in Eurasia at a time when things could go very very COLD 

Russia as a power to be reckoned with, and establishing an international system akin to 
the great power politics of the 19th century. According to Trenin: 
Briefly put, Moscow is trying to replay the end of the Cold War. This is not to say 
that the Kremlin seeks to revive the Soviet Union, establish garrisons on the Elbe 
and the Vistula or re-enter Afghanistan. Moscow seeks an equal footing with the 
West and recognition as a power centre in the region that stretches from the 
European Union to China’s borders and from the North Pole to the Middle East. 
Unlike the Cold War era, the new round of Russian-Western relations is not 
necessarily a zero-sum game; but unlike the period of ‘strategic partnership’, the 
relationship is no longer thought of in terms of win-win. This new round is closer to 
the late 19th century model, with the great powers simultaneously partners and 

rivals, avoiding full-scale conflict OR NOT....

PLACE YOUR BETS PLEASE

RIEN NE VA PLUS .....

THE CRAZY RUSSIANS Freud's Russia: National Identity in the Evolution of Psychoanalysis THE lifelong involvement with the Russian national character and culture is examined in James Rice's imaginative combination of history, literary analysis, and psychoanalysis. Freud's Russia opens up the neglected "Eastern Front" of Freud's world--the Russian roots of his parents, colleagues, and patients. He reveals that the psychoanalyst was vitally concerned with the events in Russian history and its nineteenth-century cultural greats. Rice explores how this intense interest contributed to the evolution of psychoanalysis at every critical stage. Freud's mentor Charcot was a physician to the Tsar; his best friends in Paris were gifted Russian doctors; and some of his most valued colleagues (Max Eitingon, Moshe Wulff, Sabina Spielrein, and Lou Andreas-Salome) were also from Russia. These acquaintances intrigued Freud and precipitated his inquiry into the Russian psyche. Rice shows how Freud's major works incorporate elements, overtly and covertly, from his Russia. He describes Freud's most famous case, the Wolf-Man (Sergei Pankeev), and traces how his personality fused, in Freud's imagination, with that of Feodor Dostoevsky. Beyond this, Rice reveals the remarkable influence Dostoevsky had on Freud, surveying Freud's extensive library holdings and sources of biographical information on the Russian novelist. Initially inspired by the Freud-Jung letters that appeared in 1974, Freud's Russia breaks new ground. Its fresh perspective will be of significant interest to psychoanalysts, historians of European culture, biographers of Freud, and students of Dostoevsky in comparative literature. It is a major work in fusing European intellectual history with the founding father of psychoanalysis.

XXX-RATED

The Evolution of Russia (Library of European Civilization)

by A


 major theme is the split


 between the views 

that Russia is "European"



 and that it is "Asian."


EXPANSÃO TERRITORIAL RUSSA DEVIDA À NECESSIDADE DE AFIRMAÇÃO

DA RÚSSIA COMO POTÊNCIA EUROPEIA 

E POR EXTENSÃO DOS RUSSOS COMO EUROPEUS 

DE PLENO DIREITO

E NÃO BÁRBAROS SEMI-CIVILIZADOS NAS FRONTEIRAS DO IMPÉRIO

dijous, 30 d’octubre de 2014

There are some forty principal mines, in an area of about seventy miles by thirty or forty in breadth. The chief ore of lead smelted is galena. The associated minerals of most [Pg 47]prominence are sulphate of barytes, sulphuret of zinc, calcareous spar, and crystallized quartz, chiefly in radiated crystals. I spent upwards of three months in a survey of the mines of chief consequence, noting their peculiarities and geological features. By far the most remarkable feature in the general structure of the country, consists of the existence of a granitical tract at the sources of the river St. Francis. This I particularly examined. The principal elevations consist of red sienite and greenstone, lying in their usual forms of mountain masses. The geological upheavals which have brought these masses to their present elevations, appear to have been of the most ancient character; for the limestones and crystalline sandstones have been deposited, in perfectly horizontal beds, against their sides. Feeling a desire to compare this formation with the structure of the country west and south of it, extending to the Rocky mountains, and satisfied at the same time that these primary peaks constituted the mineral region of De Soto's most northerly explorations, I determined to extend my explorations south-westwardly. The term "Ozark mountains" is popularly applied to the broad and elevated highlands which stretch in this direction, reaching from the Maramec to the Arkansas. Having obtained the best information accessible from hunters and others who had gone farthest in that direction, I determined to proceed, as early as I could complete my arrangements for that purpose, to explore those elevations. Colonel W. H. Ashley, who had penetrated into this region, together with several enterprising hunters and woodsmen, represented it as metalliferous, and abounding in scenes of varied interest. It had been the ancient hunting-ground of the Osages, a wild and predatory tribe, who yet infested its fastnesses; and it was represented as subject to severe risks from this cause. Two or three of the woodsmen, who were best acquainted with this tract, expressed a willingness to accompany me on a tour of exploration. I therefore, in the month of October, revisited St. Louis and Illinois, for the purpose of making final arrangements for the tour, and obtained the consent of Mr. Brigham and Mr. Pettibone, previously [Pg 48]mentioned, to accompany me. A day was appointed for our assembling at Potosi. I then returned to complete my arrangements. I purchased a stout, low-priced horse, to carry such supplies as were requisite, made his pack-saddle with my own hands, and had it properly riveted by a smith. A pair of blankets for sleeping; a small, short-handled frying-pan; a new axe, a tin coffeepot, three tin cups, and the same number of tin plates; a couple of hunting-knives; a supply of lead, shot, ball, powder, and flints; a small smith's hammer, and nails for setting a horse-shoe; a horse-bell and strap; a pocket compass; a gun, shot-pouch, and appendages, containing a space for my diary; a mineral-hammer, constructed under my own directions, so as to embrace a small mortar on one face, and capable of unscrewing at the handle, which could be used as a pestle; a supply of stout clothing, a bearskin and oilcloth, some bacon, tea, sugar, salt, hard bread, &c., constituted the chief articles of outfit. The man of whom I purchased the horse called him by the unpoetic name of "Butcher." It was the beginning of November before my friends arrived, and on the sixth of that month we packed the horse, and took our way over the mineral hills that surround Potosi, making our first encampment in a little valley, on the margin of a stream called Bates's creek. It was fine autumn weather; the leaves of the forest were mostly sere, and the winds scattered them about us with an agreeable movement, as we wound among the hills. We were evidently following an old Indian trail, and, finding a rather tenable old wigwam, constructed of poles and bark, we pitched upon it as our first place of encampment. My kind host from Kentucky, with whom I had been staying, accompanied us thus far, to see us safely in the woods, and taught me the art of hobbling a horse, and tying on his night-bell. The hunters, who had talked rather vaingloriously of their prowess among wild animals and Osages, one by one found obstacles to impede their going. Finally, one of my companions was compelled to return, owing to a continued attack of fever and ague. I determined, nevertheless, to proceed, thinking that a hunter could be found to join us before quitting the verge of [Pg 49]civilization. Having unpacked Butcher, prepared him for the night, stowed away the baggage, and built a fire, I took my gun and sallied out into the forest, while my companion prepared things for our supper. I found the greatest abundance of large black and grey squirrels in a neighboring wood, and returned with a number of the finest of them in season to add to our evening's meal. A man's first night in the wilderness is impressive. Our friends had left us, and returned to Potosi. Gradually all sounds of animated nature ceased. When darkness closed around us, the civilized world seemed to have drawn its curtains, and excluded us. We put fresh sticks on the fire, which threw a rich flash of light on our camp, and finally wrapped ourselves in our blankets, and, amidst ruminations on the peculiarities of our position, our hopes, and our dangers, we sank to sleep. Nov. 7th. The first thing listened for this morning was the tinkle of our horse's bell. But Butcher was gone. All my precautions had been in vain. The poor beast appeared to have had a presentiment of the hard fare that was before him, and, although his fore-feet were tethered, and he must lift up both together to jump, yet, having a strong recollection of the corn-fodder and juicy blades left behind him, he had made his way back to the mines. I immediately went in pursuit of him. He was easily tracked until he got to a space of rank herbage, where I lost the track, and hearing, at the same moment, a bell to the left, I pursued the sound over hill and through dale, till I came out at a farm-yard on Mine creek, four miles below Potosi, where I found the bell whose sound I had followed attached to the neck of a stately penned ox. The owner told me that Butcher had reached the mines, and been sent back to my camp by his former owner. I had nothing left but to retrace my steps, which, luckily, were but the shorter line of an acute triangle. I found him at the camp. It was, however, ten o'clock before our breakfast was despatched, and the horse repacked ready for starting. We took the labor of leading the horse, and carrying the compass and guiding, day [Pg 50]about, so as to equalize these duties, and leave no cause for dissatisfaction. Our trail carried us across the succession of elevated and arid ridges called the Pinery. Not a habitation of any kind, nor the vestiges of one, was passed; neither did we observe any animal, or even bird. The soil was sterile, hard, and flinty, bearing yellow pines, with some oaks. Our general course was west-south-west. The day was mild and pleasant for the season. For a computed distance of fourteen miles, we encountered a succession of ascents and descents, which made us rejoice, as evening approached, to see a tilled valley before us. It proved to be the location of a small branch of the Maramec river, called by its original French name of Fourche â Courtois. The sun sank below the hills as we entered this valley. Some woodcock flew up as we reached the low ground; but as we had a cabin in view, and the day was far gone, we moved on toward our principal object. Presently the loud barking of dogs announced our approach; they seemed, by their clamor, as pertinacious as if two wolves or panthers were stealing on the tenement, till they were silenced by the loud commands of their master. It was a small log building, of the usual construction on the frontiers, and afforded the usual hospitality, and ready accommodations. They gave us warm cakes of corn-bread, and fine rich milk; and, spreading our blankets before the fire, we enjoyed sound slumbers. Butcher, here, had his last meal of corn, and made no attempt to escape.These early adventures in the Ozarks comprehend my first exploratory effort in the great area of the West. To traverse the plains and mountain elevations west of the Mississippi, which had once echoed the tramp of the squadrons of De Soto—to range over hills, and through rugged defiles, which he had once searched in the hope of finding mines of gold and silver rivalling those of Mexico and Peru; and this, too, coming as a climax to the panorama of a long, long journey from the East—constituted an attainment of youthful exultation and self-felicitation, which might have been forgotten with its termination. But the incidents are perceived to have had a value of a different kind. They supply the first attempt to trace the track of the Spanish cavaliers west of the Mississippi. The name of De Soto is inseparably connected with the territorial area of Missouri and Arkansas, which he was the first European to penetrate, and in the latter of which he died. Four-and-thirty years have passed away, since the travels here brought to view, were terminated. They comprise a period of exciting and startling events in our history, social and political. With the occupancy of Oregon, the annexation [Pg vi]of Texas, the discoveries in California, and the acquisition of New Mexico, the very ends of the Union appear to have been turned about. And the lone scenes and adventures of a man on a then remote frontier, may be thought to have lost their interest. But they are believed to possess a more permanent character. It is the first and only attempt to identify De Soto's march west of the Mississippi; and it recalls reminiscences of scenes and observations which belong to the history of the discovery and settlement of the country. Little, it is conceived, need be said, to enable the reader to determine the author's position on the frontiers of Missouri and Arkansas in 1818. He had passed the summer and fall of that year in investigating the geological structure and mineral resources of the lead-mine district of Missouri. He had discovered the isolated primitive tract on the sources of the St. Francis and Grand rivers—the "Coligoa" of the Spanish adventurer—and he felt a strong impulse to explore the regions west of it, to determine the extent of this formation, and fix its geological relations between the primitive ranges of the Alleghany and Rocky mountains. Reports represented it as an alpine tract, abounding in picturesque valleys and caves, and replete with varied mineral resources, but difficult to penetrate on account of the hostile character of the Osage and Pawnee Indians. He recrossed the Mississippi to the American bottom of Illinois, to lay his plan before a friend and fellow-traveller in an earlier part of his explorations, Mr. Ebenezer Brigham, of Massachusetts, who agreed to unite in the enterprise. He then proceeded to St. Louis, where Mr. Pettibone, a Connecticut man, and a fellow-voyager on the Alleghany river, determined also to unite in this interior journey. The place of rendezvous was appointed [Pg vii]at Potosi, about forty miles west of the Mississippi. Each one was to share in the preparations, and some experienced hunters and frontiersmen were to join in the expedition. But it turned out, when the day of starting arrived, that each one of the latter persons found some easy and good excuse for declining to go, principally on the ground that they were poor men, and could not leave supplies for their families during so long a period of absence. Both the other gentlemen came promptly to the point, though one of them was compelled by sickness to return; and my remaining companion and myself plunged into the wilderness with a gust of adventure and determination, which made amends for whatever else we lacked. It is only necessary to add, that the following journal narrates the incidents of the tour. The narrative is drawn up from the original manuscript journal in my possession. Outlines of parts of it, were inserted in the pages of the Belles-lettres Repository, by Mr. Van Winkle, soon after my return to New York, in 1819; from whence they were transferred by Sir Richard Phillips to his collection of Voyages and Travels, London, 1821. This latter work has never been republished in the United States. In preparing the present volume, after so considerable a lapse of time, it has been thought proper to omit all such topics as are not deemed of permanent or historical value. The scientific facts embraced in the appendix, on the mines and mineralogy of Missouri, are taken from my publication on these subjects. In making selections and revisions from a work which was at first hastily prepared, I have availed myself of the advantage of subsequent observation on the spot, as well as of the suggestions and critical remarks made by men of judgment and science. [Pg viii]A single further remark may be made: The term Ozark is applied to a broad, elevated district of highlands, running from north to south, centrally, through the States of Missouri and Arkansas. It has on its east the striking and deep alluvial tract of the Mississippi river, and, on its west, the woodless buffalo plains or deserts which stretch below the Rocky Mountains. The Osage Indians, who probably furnish origin for the term, have occupied all its most remarkable gorges and eminences, north of the Arkansas, from the earliest historical times; and this tribe, with the Pawnees ("Apana"), are supposed to have held this position ever since the days of De Soto. Washington, January 20, 1853.

PASS CAPE GARLIC—OBRAZO RIVER—CLIFFS—EMIGRANTS—CAPE ST. COMB—BOIS BRULE BOTTOM—PAROQUET—FORT CHARTRES—KASKASKIA—ST. GENEVIEVE—M. BRETON—THE MISSISSIPPI DEFICIENT IN FISH—ANTIQUITIES—GEOLOGY—STEAMER—HERCULANEUM—M. AUSTIN, ESQ., THE PIONEER TO TEXAS—JOURNEY ON FOOT TO ST. LOUIS—MISADVENTURES ON THE MARAMEC—ITS INDIAN NAME—CARONDELET—ST. LOUIS, ITS FINE SITE AND PROBABLE FUTURE IMPORTANCE—ST. LOUIS MOUNDS NOT ARTIFICIAL—DOWNWARD PRESSURE OF THE DILUVIAL DRIFT OF THE MISSISSIPPI.

July 13th. We renewed the attempt to pass Cape Garlic at an early hour, and succeeded after a protracted and severe trial. But two of our best men immediately declared their unwillingness to proceed farther in these severe labors, in which they were obliged to pull like oxen; and they were promptly paid off by the captain, and permitted to return. The crew, thus diminished, went on a short distance further with the barge, and came-to at the mouth of the Obrazo river, to await the effort of our commander to procure additional hands. We had not now advanced more than two miles, which constituted the sum of this day's progress. While moored here, we were passed by four boats filled with emigrants from Vermont and Western New York, destined for Boon's Lick, on the Missouri. I embraced the occasion of this delay to make some excursions in the vicinity.

July 14th. Having been successful in obtaining a reinforcement of hands from the interior, we pursued the ascent, and made six miles along the Missouri shore. The next day (15th) [Pg 33]we ascended seven miles. This leisurely tracing of the coast revealed to me some of the minutest features of its geological structure. The cliffs consist of horizontal strata of limestone, resting on granular crystalline sandstone. Nothing can equal the beauty of the varying landscape presented for the last two days. There has appeared a succession of the most novel and interesting objects. Whatever pleasure can be derived from the contemplation of natural objects, presented in surprising and picturesque groups, can here be enjoyed in the highest degree. Even art may be challenged to contrast, with more effect, the bleak and rugged cliff with the verdant forest, the cultivated field, or the wide-extended surface of the Mississippi, interspersed with its beautiful islands, and winding majestically through a country, which only requires the improvements of civilized and refined society, to render it one of the most delightful residences of man. Nor is it possible to contemplate the vast extent, fertility, resources, and increasing population of this immeasurable valley, without feeling a desire that our lives could be prolonged to an unusual period, that we might survey, an hundred years hence, the improved social and political condition of the country, and live to participate in its advantages, improvements, and power.
All the emigrants whom we have passed seem to be buoyed up by a hopeful and enterprising character; and, although most of them are manifestly from the poorest classes, and are from twelve to fifteen hundred miles on their adventurous search for a new home, from none have I heard a word of despondency.


July 16th. I observed to-day, at Cape St. Comb, large angular fragments of a species of coarse granular sandstone rock, which appear to be disjecta membra of a much more recent formation than that underlying the prevalent surface formation.
The gay and noisy paroquet was frequently seen, this day, wheeling in flocks over the river; and at one point, which was revealed suddenly, we beheld a large flock of pelicans standing along a low, sandy peninsula. Either the current, during to-day's voyage, was less furious, or the bargemen exerted more strength or skill; for we ascended ten miles, and encamped at the foot of Bois Brule BRULÉ LIKE THE CREAM...(Burnt-wood) bottom. The term "bottom" is applied, in the West, to extensive tracts of level and arable alluvial soil, whether covered by, or denuded of, native forest trees. We found it the commencement of a comparatively populous and flourishing settlement, having on the next day (17th) passed along its margin for seven miles. Its entire length is twelve miles.


July 18th. The most prominent incidents of this day were the passing, on the Illinois shore, of the celebrated site of fort Chartres, and the influx of the Kaskaskia (or, as it is abbreviated by the men, Ocaw or Caw) river—a large stream on the eastern shore. These names will recall some of the earliest and most stirring scenes of Illinois history. The town of Kaskaskia, which is the present seat of the territorial government, is seated seven miles above its mouth.
Fort Chartres is now a ruin, and, owing to the capricious channel of the Mississippi, is rapidly tumbling into it. It had been a regular work, built of stone, according to the principles of military art. Its walls formerly contained not only the chief element of military power in French Illinois, but also sheltered the ecclesiastics and traders of the time. In an old manuscript journal of that fort which I have seen, a singular custom of the Osages is mentioned, on the authority of one Mons. Jeredot. He says (Dec. 22, 1766) that they have a feast, which they generally celebrate about the month of March, when they bake a large (corn) cake of about three or four feet diameter, and of two or three inches thickness. This is cut into pieces, from the centre to the circumference; and the principal chief or warrior arises and advances to the cake, when he declares his valor, and recounts his noble actions. If he is not contradicted, or none has aught to allege against him, he takes a piece of the cake, and distributes it among the boys of the nation, repeating to them his noble exploits, and exhorting them to imitate them. Another then approaches, and in the same manner recounts his achievements, and proceeds as [Pg 35]before. Should any one attempt to take of the cake, to whose character there is the least exception, he is stigmatized and set aside as a poltroon.
It is said by some of the oldest and most intelligent inhabitants of St. Louis, that about 1768, when the British had obtained possession of fort Chartres, a very nefarious transaction took place in that vicinity, in the assassination of the celebrated Indian chief Pontiac. Tradition tells us that this man had exercised great influence in the North and West, and that he resisted the transfer of authority from the French to the English, on the fall of Canada. Carver has a story on this subject, detailing the siege of Detroit in 1763, which has been generally read. The version of Pontiac's death in Illinois, is this:—While encamped in this vicinity, an Illinois Indian, who had given in his adherence to the new dynasty of the English, was hired by the promise of rum, by some English traders, to assassinate the chief, while the latter was reposing on his pallet at night, still vainly dreaming, perhaps, of driving the English out of America, and of restoring his favorite Indo-Gallic empire in the West.


July 19th. We ascended the Mississippi seven miles yesterday, to which, by all appliances, we added eleven miles to-day, which is our maximum ascent in one day. Five miles of this distance, along the Missouri shore, consists of the great public field of St. Genevieve. This field is a monument of early French policy in the days of Indian supremacy, when the agricultural population of a village was brought to labor in proximity, so that any sudden and capricious attack of the natives could be effectively repelled. We landed at the mouth of the Gabarie, a small stream which passes through the town. St. Genevieve lies on higher ground, above the reach of the inundations, about a mile west of the landing. It consists of some three hundred wooden houses, including several stores, a post-office, court-house, Roman Catholic church, and a branch of the Missouri Bank, having a capital of fifty thousand dollars. The town is one of the principal markets and places of shipment for the Missouri lead-mines. Heavy stacks of lead in [Pg 36]pigs, are one of the chief characteristics which I saw in, and often piled up in front of its storehouses; and they give one the idea of a considerable export in this article.


July 20th. I devoted this day to a reconnoissance of St. Genevieve and its environs. The style of building reminds one of the ancient Belgic and Dutch settlements on the banks of the Hudson and Mohawk—high-pointed roofs to low one-story-buildings, and large stone chimneys out-doors. The streets are narrow, and the whole village as compact as if built to sustain a siege. The water of the Mississippi is falling rapidly, and leaves on the shores a deposit of mud, varying from a foot to two feet in depth. This recent deposit appears to consist essentially of silex and alumine, in a state of very intimate mixture. An opinion is prevalent throughout this country, that the water of the Mississippi, with every impurity, is healthful as a common drink; and accordingly the boatmen, and many of the inhabitants on the banks of the river, make use of no other water. An expedient resorted to at first, perhaps, from necessity, may be continued from an impression of the benefits resulting from it. I am not well enough acquainted with the chemical properties of the water, or the method in which it operates on the human system, to deny its utility; but, to my palate, clear spring-water is far preferable. A simple method is pursued for clarifying it: a handful of Indian meal is sprinkled on the surface of a vessel of water, precipitating the mud to the bottom, and the superincumbent water is left in a tolerable state of purity.


July 21st. We again set forward this morning. On ascending three miles, we came to Little Rock ferry—a noted point of crossing from the east to the west of the Mississippi. The most remarkable incident in the history of this place is the residence of an old French soldier, of an age gone by, who has left his name in the geography of the surrounding country. M. Breton, the person alluded to, is stated to be, at this time, one hundred and nine years of age. Tradition says that he was at Braddock's defeat—at the siege of Louisbourg—at the [Pg 37]building of fort Chartres, in the Illinois—and at the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom, in Flanders. While wandering as a hunter, after his military services had ended, in the country about forty miles west of the Mississippi, he discovered the extensive lead-mines which continue to bear his name.
We ascended this day twelve miles, which is the utmost stretch of our exertions against the turbid and heavy tide of this stream. Our captain (Ensminger) looked in the evening as if he had been struggling all day in a battle, and his men took to their pallets as if exhausted to the last degree.


July 22d. I have seen very little, thus far, in the Mississippi, in the shape of fish. The only species noticed has been the gar; one of which I caught, as described, from the side of the boat, while lying at the mouth of the Ohio. Of all rivers in the West, I should think it the least favorable to this form of organized matter. Of the coarse species of the catfish and buffalo-fish which are found in its waters, I suppose the freshet has deprived us of a sight.
Of antiquities, I have seen nothing since leaving the Ohio valley till this day, when I picked up, in my rambles on shore, an ancient Indian dart, of chert. The Indian antiquities on the Illinois shore, however, are stated to be very extensive. Near the Kaskaskia river are numerous mounds and earthworks, which denote a heavy ancient population.
The limestone cliffs, at the place called Dormant Rocks, assume a very imposing appearance. These precipitous walls bear the marks of attrition in water-lines, very plainly impressed, at great heights above the present water-level; creating the idea that they may have served as barriers to some ancient ocean resting on the grand prairies of Illinois.
We were passed, near evening, by the little steamer Harriet, on her descent from St. Louis. This vessel is the same that was noticed on the 11th, on her ascent, and is the only representative of steam-power that we have observed.[5] Our ascent this day was estimated at thirteen miles.


[Pg 38]July 23d. Passing the Platten creek, the prominence called Cornice Rock, and the promontory of Joachim creek, an ascent of five miles brought us to the town of Herculaneum. This name of a Roman city buried for ages, gives, at least, a moral savor of antiquity to a country whose institutions are all new and nascent. It was bestowed, I believe, by Mr. Austin, who is one of the principal proprietors of the place. It consists of between thirty and forty houses, including three stores, a post-office, court-house, and school. There are three shot-towers on the adjoining cliffs, and some mills, with a tan-yard and a distillery, in the vicinity. It is also a mart for the lead-mine country.
I had now ascended one hundred and seventy miles from the junction of the Ohio. This had required over twenty-two days, which gives an average ascent of between seven and eight miles per day, and sufficiently denotes the difficulty of propelling boats up this stream by manual labor.
At Herculaneum I was introduced to M. Austin, Esq.—a gentleman who had been extensively engaged in the mining business while the country was yet under Spanish jurisdiction, and who was favorably known, a few years after, as the prime mover of the incipient steps to colonize Texas. Verbal information, from him and others, appeared to make this a favorable point from which to proceed into the interior, for the purpose of examining its mineral structure and peculiarities. I therefore determined to leave my baggage here until I had visited the territorial capital, St. Louis. This was still thirty miles distant, and, after making the necessary preparations, I set out, on the 26th of the month, on foot. In this journey I was joined by my two compagnons de voyage from Pennsylvania and Maryland. We began our march at an early hour. The summer had now assumed all its fervor, and power of relaxation and lassitude on the muscles of northern constitutions. We set out on foot early, but, as the day advanced, the sun beat down powerfully, and the air seemed to owe all its paternity to tropical regions. It was in vain we reached the summit land. There was no breeze, and the forest trees were too few and widely scattered to afford any appreciable shade.
[Pg 39]The soil of the Missouri uplands appears to possess a uniform character, although it is better developed in some localities than in others. It is the red mineral clay, which, in some of its conditions, yields beds of galena throughout the mine country, bearing fragments of quartz in some of its numerous varieties. In these uplands, its character is not so well marked as in the districts further west; geologically considered, however, it is identical in age and relative position. The gullied character of the soil, and its liability to crumble under the effect of rain, and to be carried off, which was first noticed at Cape Girardeau, is observed along this portion of the river, and is most obvious in the gulfy state of the roads.
What added greatly to our fatigue in crossing this tract, was the having taken a too westerly path, which gave us a roundabout tramp. On returning to the main track, we forded Cold river, a rapid and clear brook; a little beyond which, we reached a fine, large, crystal spring, the waters of which bubbled up briskly and bright, and ran off from their point of outbreak to the river we had just crossed, leaving a white deposit of sulphur. The water is pretty strongly impregnated with this mineral, and is supposed to have a beneficial effect in bilious complaints. The scenery in the vicinity of the spring is highly picturesque, and the place is capable of being made a delightful resort.
Five miles more brought us to the banks of the Maramec river, where we arrived at dark, and prevailed with the ferryman to take us across, notwithstanding the darkness of the night, and the rain, which, after having threatened a shower all the afternoon, now began to fall. The Maramec is the principal stream of the mine country, and is the recipient of affluents, spreading over a large area. The aboriginal name of this stream, Mr. Austin informed me, should be written "Marameg." The ferryman seemed in no hurry to put us over this wide river, at so late an hour, and with so portentous a sky as hung over us, threatening every moment to pour down floods upon us. By the time we had descended from his house into the valley, and he had put us across to the opposite shore, it was dark. We took his directions for finding the house at which we expected to lodge; but it soon became so intensely dark, that we pursued a wrong track, which led us away from the shelter we sought. Satisfied at length that we had erred, we knew not what to do. It then began to pour down rain. We groped about a while, but finally stood still. In this position, we had not remained long, when the faint tinkling of a cow-bell, repeated leisurely, as if the animal were housed, fell on our ears. The direction of the sound was contrary to that we had been taking; but we determined to grope our way cautiously toward it, guided at intervals by flashes of lightning which lit up the woods, and standing still in the meanwhile to listen. At length we came to a fence. This was a guide, and by keeping along one side of it, it led us to the house of which we were in search. We found that, deducting our misadventure in the morning, we had advanced on our way, directly, but about fifteen miles.


July 27th. We were again on our path at a seasonable hour, and soon passed out of the fertile and heavily timbered valley of the Maramec. There now commenced a gentle ridge, running parallel to the Mississippi river for twelve miles. In this distance there was not a single house, nor any trace that man had bestowed any permanent labor. It was sparsely covered with oaks, standing at long distances apart, with the intervening spaces profusely covered with prairie grass and flowers. We frequently saw the deer bounding before us; and the views, in which we sometimes caught glimpses of the river, were of a highly sylvan character. But the heat of the day was intense, and we sweltered beneath it. About half-way, we encountered a standing spring, in a sort of open cavern at the foot of a hill, and stooped down and drank. We then went on, still "faint and wearily," to the old French village of Carondelet, which bears the soubriquet of Vede-pouche (empty sack). It contains about sixty wooden buildings, arranged mostly in a single street. Here we took breakfast.
Being now within six miles of the place of our destination, and recruited and refreshed, we pushed on with more alacrity. The first three miles led through a kind of brushy heath, which had the appearance of having once been covered with large trees that had all been cut away for firing, with here and there a dry trunk, denuded and white, looking like ghosts of a departed forest. Patches of cultivation, with a few buildings, then supervened. These tokens of a better state of things increased in frequency and value till we reached the skirts of the town, which we entered about four o'clock in the afternoon.
St. Louis impressed me as a geographical position of superlative advantages for a city. It now contains about five hundred and fifty houses, and five thousand inhabitants. It has forty stores, a post-office, a land-office, two chartered banks, a court-house, jail, theatre, three churches, one brewery, two distilleries, two water-mills, a steam flouring-mill, and other improvements. These elements of prosperity are but indications of what it is destined to become. The site is unsurpassed for its beauty and permanency; a limestone formation rising from the shores of the Mississippi, and extending gradually to the upper plain. It is in north latitude 38° 36', nearly equidistant from the Alleghany and the Rocky mountains. It is twelve hundred miles above New Orleans, and about one thousand below St. Anthony's falls.
No place in the world, situated so far from the ocean, can at all compare with St. Louis for commercial advantages. It is so situated with regard to the surrounding country, as to become the key to its commerce, and the storehouse of its wealth; and if the whole western region be surveyed with a geographical eye, it must rest with unequalled interest on that peninsula of land formed by the junction of the Missouri with the Mississippi—a point occupied by the town of St. Louis. Standing near the confluence of two such mighty streams, an almost immeasurable extent of back country must flow to it with its produce, and be supplied from it with merchandise. The main branch of the Missouri is navigable two thousand five hundred miles, and the most inconsiderable of its tributary streams will vie with the largest rivers of the Atlantic States. The Mississippi, on the other hand, is navigable without interruption for one thousand miles above St. Louis. Its affluents, the De Corbeau, Iowa, Wisconsin, St. Pierre, Rock river, Salt river, and Desmoines, are all streams of the first magnitude, and navigable for many hundred miles. The Illinois is navigable three hundred miles; and when the communication between it and the lakes, and between the Mississippi and lake Superior, and the lake of the Woods—between the Missouri and the Columbia valley—shall be effected; communications not only pointed out, but, in some instances, almost completed by nature; what a chain of connected navigation shall we behold! And by looking upon the map, we shall find St. Louis the focus where all these streams are destined to be discharged—the point where all this vast commerce must centre, and where the wealth flowing from these prolific sources must pre-eminently crown her the queen of the west.
My attention was called to two large mounds, on the western bank of the Mississippi, a short distance above St. Louis. I have no hesitation in expressing the opinion that they are geological, and not artificial. Indian bodies have been buried in their sides, precisely as they are often buried by the natives in other elevated grounds, for which they have a preference. But the mounds themselves consist of sand, boulders, pebbles, and other drift materials, such as are common to undisturbed positions in the Mississippi valley generally.
Another subject in the physical geography of the country attracted my notice, the moment the river fell low enough to expose its inferior shores, spits, and sand-bars. It is the progressive diffusion of its detritus from superior to inferior positions in its length. Among this transported material I observed numerous small fragments of those agates, and other silicious minerals of the quartz family, which characterize the broad diluvial tracts about its sources and upper portions.
[Pg 43]

FOOTNOTE:

[5]I found fifty steamers of all sizes on the Mississippi and its tributaries, of which a list is published in the Appendix.





CHAPTER III.

RESOLVE TO PROCEED FURTHER WEST—NIGHT VOYAGE ON THE MISSISSIPPI IN A SKIFF—AN ADVENTURE—PROCEED ON FOOT WEST TO THE MISSOURI MINES—INCIDENTS BY THE WAY—MINERS' VILLAGE OF SHIBBOLETH—COMPELLED BY A STORM TO PASS THE NIGHT AT OLD MINES—REACH POTOSI—FAVORABLE RECEPTION BY THE MINING GENTRY—PASS SEVERAL MONTHS IN EXAMINING THE MINES—ORGANIZE AN EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE WESTWARD—ITS COMPOSITION—DISCOURAGEMENTS ON SETTING OUT—PROCEED, NOTWITHSTANDING—INCIDENTS OF THE JOURNEY TO THE VALLEY OF LEAVES.


I was kindly received by some persons I had before known, particularly by a professional gentleman with whom I had descended the Alleghany river in the preceding month of March, who invited me to remain at his house. I had now proceeded about seventeen hundred miles from my starting-point in Western New York; and after passing a few days in examining the vicinity, and comparing facts, I resolved on the course it would be proper to pursue, in extending my journey further west and south-west. I had felt, for many years, an interest in the character and resources of the mineralogy of this part of what I better knew as Upper Louisiana, and its reported mines of lead, silver, copper, salt, and other natural productions. I had a desire to see the country which De Soto had visited, west of the Mississippi, and I wished to trace its connection with the true Cordillera of the United States—the Stony or Rocky mountains. My means for undertaking this were rather slender. I had already drawn heavily on these in my outward trip. But I felt (I believe from early reading) an irrepressible desire to explore this region. I was a good draughtsman, mapper, and geographer, a ready penman, a rapid sketcher, and a naturalist devoted to mineralogy and geology, with some readiness as an assayer and experimental chemist; and I relied on these as both aids and recommendations—as, in short, the incipient means of success.
When ready to embark on the Mississippi, I was joined by my two former companions in the ascent from the mouth of the Ohio. It was late in the afternoon of one of the hottest summer days, when we took our seats together in a light skiff at St. Louis, and pushed out into the Mississippi, which was still in flood, but rapidly falling, intending to reach Cahokia that night. But the atmosphere soon became overcast, and, when night came on, it was so intensely dark that we could not discriminate objects at much distance. Floating, in a light pine skiff, in the centre of such a stream, on a very dark night, our fate seemed suspended by a thread. The downward pressure of the current was such, that we needed not to move an oar; and every eye was strained, by holding it down parallel to the water, to discover contiguous snags, or floating bodies. It became, at the same time, quite cold. We at length made a shoal covered with willows, or a low sandy islet, on the left, or Illinois shore. Here, one of my Youghioghany friends, who had not yet got over his penchant for grizzly bears, returned from reconnoitering the bushes, with the cry of this prairie monster with a cub. It was too dark to scrutinize, and, as we had no arms, we pushed on hurriedly about a mile further, and laid down, rather than slept, on the shore, without victuals or fire. At daylight, for which we waited anxiously, we found ourselves nearly opposite Carondelet, to which we rowed, and where we obtained a warm breakfast. Before we had finished eating, our French landlady called for pay. Whether anything on our part had awakened her suspicions, or the deception of others had rendered the precaution necessary, I cannot say. Recruited in spirits by this meal, and by the opening of a fine, clear day, we pursued our way, without further misadventure, about eighteen miles, and landed at Herculaneum.
The next day, which was the last of July, I set out on foot for the mines, having directed my trunks to follow me by the first returning lead-teams. My course led through an open, rolling country, covered with grass, shrubs, and prairie flowers, and having but few trees. There was consequently little or no shade, and, the weather being sultry, I suffered much from heat and thirst. For the space of about twelve miles, the road ran over an elevated ridge, destitute of streams or springs. I did not meet an individual, nor see anything of the animal creation larger than a solitary wild turkey, which, during the hottest part of the day, came to contest with me for, or rather had previously reached, some water standing in a wagon-rut. I gained the head of the Joachim creek before nightfall, and, having taken lodgings, hastened down to a sheltered part of the channel to bathe, after which I enjoyed a refreshing night's sleep. The aboriginal name of this stream was "Zwashau," meaning pin-oak, as I was told by an old hunter whom I met.
The next day I was early on my way; and I soon began to discover, in the face of the country, evidences of its metalliferous character. Twelve miles brought me to the valley of Grand or Big river, one of the principal tributaries of the Maramec. In descending the high grounds, I observed numerous specimens of the brown oxide of iron; and after crossing the ferry, the mineral locally called mineral blossom, (radiated quartz,) of which I had noticed slight traces before, developed itself in fine specimens. The first mining village I came to, bore the name of Shibboleth. At this place there was a smelting furnace, of the kind called a log-furnace. Here I first saw heaps of the ore of lead commonly found. It is the sulphuret, of a broad glittering grain, and cubical fracture. It is readily smelted, being piled on logs of equal length, and adjusted in the before-named furnace, where it is roasted till the sulphur is driven off; when desulphurated, it melts, and the metal is received on an inclined plane and conducted into an orifice, from which it is ladled into moulds. From fifty to sixty per cent, is obtained in this way. Shibboleth is the property of John Smith T.; a man whose saturnine temper and disposition have brought him into collision with many persons, and given him a wide-spread notoriety both in Missouri and Tennessee.

I lingered along so leisurely, and stopped so often to examine objects by the way, that my progress was not rapid. I obtained some corn-bread and milk at a house, and pursued my journey to Old Mines, where a heavy storm of rain arose. I took shelter at a neighboring house, where I remained during the night. The next morning I walked into Potosi, and took lodgings at Mr. William Ficklin's. This gentleman was a native of Kentucky, where most of his life had been passed in the perils and adventures attending the early settlement of that State. His conversation was replete with anecdotes of perilous adventures which he had experienced; and I was indebted to him for some necessary practical points of knowledge in forest life, and precautions in travelling in an Indian country.
The day after my arrival was a local election day, for a representative from the county in the territorial legislature, to which Mr. Austin the younger was returned. This brought together the principal mining and agricultural gentlemen of the region, and was a circumstance of some advantage to me, in extending my acquaintance, and making known the objects of my visit. In this, the Austins, father and son, were most kind and obliging. Indeed, the spirit with which I was received by the landed proprietors of the country generally, and the frankness and urbanity of their manners and sentiments, inspired me with high hopes of success in making a mineralogical survey of the country.
I found the geological structure of the country, embracing the mines, to be very uniform. It consists of a metalliferous limestone, in horizontal strata, which have not been lifted up or disturbed from their horizontality by volcanic forces; but they have been exposed to the laws of disintegration and elemental action in a very singular manner. By this action, the surface of the formation has been divided into ridges, valleys, and hills, producing inequalities of the most striking and picturesque character.

From the ravenous panther's spring,
From the scorpion's poisoned sting,
From the serpent—reptile curst—
And the Indian's midnight thrust.
Grant me this, aerial sprite,
And a balmy rest by night,
Blest by visions of delight!
Let me dream of friendship true,
And that human ills are few;
Let me dream that boyhood's schemes
Are not, what I've found them, dreams;
And his hopes, however GAMMA gay....

Have not flitted fast away.
Let me dream, I ne'er have felt,
Ease that pleases, joys that melt;
Or that I shall ever find
Honor fair, or fortune kind;
Dream that time shall sweetly fling,
In my path, perpetual spring.
Let me dream my bosom never
Felt the pang from friends to sever;
Or that life is not replete,
Or with loss, pain, wo, deceit.
Let me dream, misfortune's smart
Ne'er hath wrung my bleeding heart;
Nor its potent, galling sway,
Forced me far, O! far away;
Let me dream it—for I know,
When I wake, it is not so

Grant me, from thy crystal rill,
Oft my glittering cup to fill;
Let thy dwelling, rude and high,
Make my nightly canopy,
And by superhuman walls 
Ward the dew that nightly falls.
Guard me from the ills that creep 
On the houseless traveller's sleep

O! thou, who, clothed in magic spell,
Delight'st in lonely wilds to dwell,
Resting in rift, or wrapped in air,
Remote from mortal ken, or care:
Genius of caverns drear and wild,
Hear a suppliant wandering child—
One, who nor a wanton calls,
Or intruder in thy walls:
One, who spills not on the plain,
Blood for sport, or worldly gain,
Like his red barbarian kin,
Deep in murder—foul in sin;
Or, with high, horrific yells,
Rends thy dark and silent cells;
But, a devious traveller nigh,
Weary, hungry, parched, and dry;
One, who seeks thy shelter blest,
Not to riot, but to rest.

PENNSYLVANIA Dutch COOKERY IN 1683 the Plain Sects began to arrive in William Penn’s Colony seeking a land of peace and plenty. They were a mixed people; Moravians from Bohemia and Moravia, Mennonites from Switzerland and Holland, the Amish, the Dunkards, the Schwenkfelds, and the French Huguenots. After the lean years of clearing the land and developing their farms they established the peace and plenty they sought. These German-speaking people were originally called the Pennsylvania Deutsch but time and custom have caused them to be known to us as the Pennsylvania Dutch. The Pennsylvania Dutch are a hard working people and as they say, “Them that works hard, eats hearty.” The blending of recipes from their many home lands and the ingredients available in their new land produced tasty dishes that have been handed down from mother to daughter for generations. Their cooking was truly a folk art requiring much intuitive knowledge, for recipes contained measurements such as “flour to stiffen,” “butter the size of a walnut,” and “large as an apple.” Many of the recipes have been made more exact and standardized providing us with a regional cookery we can all enjoy. Soups are a traditional part of Pennsylvania Dutch cooking and the Dutch housewife can apparently make soup out of anything. If she has only milk and flour she can still make rivel soup. However, most of their soups are sturdier dishes, hearty enough to serve as the major portion of the evening meal. One of the favorite summer soups in the Pennsylvania Dutch country is Chicken Corn Soup. Few Sunday School picnic suppers would be considered complete without gallons of this hearty soup. Many of the Pennsylvania Dutch foods are a part of their folklore. No Shrove Tuesday would be complete without raised doughnuts called “fastnachts.” One of the many folk tales traces this custom back to the burnt offerings made by their old country ancestors to the goddess of spring. With the coming of Christianity the custom became associated with the Easter season and “fastnachts” are eaten on Shrove Tuesday to insure living to next Shrove Tuesday. Young dandelion greens are eaten on Maundy Thursday in order to remain well throughout the year. The Christmas season is one of the busiest times in the Pennsylvania Dutch kitchen. For weeks before Christmas the house is filled with the smell of almond cookies, anise cookies, sandtarts, Belsnickle Christmas cookies, walnut kisses, pfeffernusse, and other traditional cookies. Not just a few of one kind but dozens and dozens of many kinds of cookies must be made. There must be plenty for the enjoyment of the family and many holiday visitors. Regardless of the time of the year or the time of the day there are pies. The Pennsylvania Dutch eat pies for breakfast. They eat pies for lunch. They eat pies for dinner and they eat pies for midnight snacks. Pies are made with a great variety of ingredients from the apple pie we all know to the rivel pie which is made from flour, sugar, and butter. The Dutch housewife is as generous with her pies as she is with all her cooking, baking six or eight at a time not one and two. The apple is an important Pennsylvania Dutch food. Dried apples form the basis for many typical dishes. Each fall barrels of apples are converted into cider. Apple butter is one of the Pennsylvania Dutch foods which has found national acceptance. The making of apple butter is an all-day affair and has the air of a holiday to it. Early in the morning the neighbors gather and begin to peel huge piles of apples that will be needed. Soon the great copper apple butter kettle is brought out and set up over a wood fire. Apple butter requires constant stirring to prevent burning. However, stirring can be light work for a boy and a girl when they’re young and the day is bright and the world is full of promise. By dusk the apple butter is made, neighborhood news is brought up to date and hunger has been driven that much further away for the coming winter. Food is abundant and appetites are hearty in the Pennsylvania Dutch country. The traditional dishes are relatively simple and unlike most regional cookery the ingredients are readily available. Best of all, no matter who makes them the results are “wonderful good.”

Soups

PHILADELPHIA PEPPER POT

  • 1 lb. honeycomb tripe
  • 1 veal knuckle
  • 1½ qts. water
  • 2 tablespoons salt
  • 1 tblsp. red pepper, diced
  • 1 tblsp. green pepper, diced
  • 1 tablespoon powdered thyme
  • 6 peppercorns
  • 4 potatoes, diced
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 3 whole cloves
  • 3 tablespoons chopped parsley
  • 2 stalks celery, diced
  • 2 carrots, diced
  • 2 tomatoes, peeled, cut up
  • 4 onions, thinly sliced
  • 1 piece pimento, cut fine
Wash and scrub tripe thoroughly. Place in large kettle and cover with plenty of cold water. Bring to a boil and simmer until tender. Simmer without boiling, that is the secret of making tripe tender. Drain and dice, ½ inch squares. In the meantime place the veal knuckle in another kettle adding 1½ qts. of water and all ingredients except the potatoes. Simmer at least one hour, put in potatoes and simmer for another hour or until meat falls off the bone. Remove bone and take off all the meat. Cut it into small pieces and together with the tripe put it back into the soup. Bring to a boil and the soup is ready to serve. This soup keeps well and can be reheated.

DUMPLINGS (Spaetzle)

  • 1 cup milk
  • 2 cups flour
  • 2 eggs
  • 1 tsp. salt
Add milk to flour slowly, stirring constantly to keep mixture smooth. Add 1 egg at a time, beating well after each addition. Salt and mix well. When cooking in boiling salted water or meat broth, pour the batter from a shallow bowl, tilting it over the boiling kettle. With a sharp knife slice off pieces of the batter into the boiling liquid. Dip knife in the liquid before each cut to prevent sticking.

CORN CHOWDER

  • 4 slices bacon
  • 2 tblsp. onion, minced
  • 1 tblsp. celery, minced
  • 1 tblsp. pepper, minced
  • 2 cups corn
  • 2 potatoes, diced
  • 3 tomatoes, cut-up
  • 2 pints milk
  • salt
  • pepper
Dice the bacon and put into pan to brown, add onion, celery and pepper; fry until bacon is crisp. Add the corn and saute together for 3 minutes. Add the potatoes, tomatoes and seasoning, cover and simmer for 30 minutes. Finally add the milk, heat to the boiling point and serve with a little chopped parsley.

EGG NOODLES

  • 2 eggs
  • ½ tsp. salt
  • sifted flour
Add salt to the eggs and work in enough flour to make a stiff dough. Knead thoroughly, divide into 2 portions and roll each out as thin as possible, on a floured board. Cover with cloth and let stand until partly dry. Roll up the dough and cut into ¼ inch strips. Spread out on paper to dry a little longer.

DUTCH COUNTRY BEAN SOUP

  • 1 lb. soup beans
  • 1 ham bone
  • ½ cup chopped onion
  • 1 cup diced celery
  • 1 can tomato sauce
  • ½ cup diced potatoes
  • 2 tsp. minced parsley
  • salt and pepper
Soak beans in water overnight. Drain, add fresh water and cook slowly with the ham bone for 2 hours. Put in the onion, celery, potatoes, tomato sauce, parsley and the salt and pepper and simmer until vegetables are soft. Remove the ham bone, trim off any meat, cut it up and add to soup. Many Pennsylvania Dutch cooks cut up hard boiled eggs and add them to the soup.

SPLIT PEA SOUP

  • 1 lb. split peas
  • 3 qts. water
  • 1 ham bone
  • salt
  • 2 carrots, sliced
  • 1 stalk celery, chopped
  • 1 large onion, chopped
  • pepper
Wash peas, add cold water, vegetables and ham bone and simmer for three hours or until mixture is thick. Remove ham bone, force peas through coarse sieve and season to taste. Dilute with milk. Serve with toasted croutons.

VEGETABLE SOUP

  • 1 soup bone
  • 2 lbs. stewing beef
  • 2 qts. water
  • 1 cup chopped onion
  • 1 cup chopped celery
  • 1 cup tomatoes
  • 2 tsp. salt
  • black pepper
Into 2 qts. of water put soup bone and beef and boil for 2 hours. For a hearty, substantial soup, cut up the meat in small pieces and return to the broth. Add tomatoes, onions and celery. Also add other available vegetables, such as diced potatoes, carrots, turnip, string beans, corn, peas, cabbage or chopped peppers. Boil until all vegetables are tender.

MEAT FILLING for NOODLES

  • 1 cup ground beef
  • 2 tblsp. fat
  • 1 small onion
  • ½ cup dry bread crumbs
  • 1 cup bread cubes
  • salt and pepper
  • 2 tblsp. butter
Make a recipe of noodle dough (see above). Roll thin, let dry and cut into 3 inch squares. Brown meat in hot fat with the onion and seasoning. Soak bread cubes in water and press dry then add to the meat. Spoon mixture on the center of the noodle squares, fold in half and seal edges, like little pillows. Drop the filled squares into salted boiling water and cook 8 to 10 minutes. Lift carefully with draining spoon to a serving dish and top with the half cup of bread crumbs which have been browned in butter.

EGG BALLS FOR SOUP

Rub the yolks of three or four hard boiled eggs to a smooth paste and salt. To these add two raw ones lightly beaten. Add enough flour to hold the paste together. Make into balls with floured hands and set in cool place until just before your soup comes off. Put the balls carefully into the soup and boil one minute.

SPINACH FILLING for NOODLES

  • 2 lbs. raw spinach, chopped
  • 3 tblsp. butter
  • salt and pepper
  • 1½ cups bread crumbs
  • 2 eggs
Make a recipe of noodle dough (see above). Steam and brown the spinach in melted butter. Add the eggs, 1 cup of dry bread crumbs and the seasoning. Mix well, spoon mixture on noodle dough squares and proceed as above.

SALSIFY or VEGETABLE OYSTER SOUP

  • 1½ cups diced salsify
  • 1½ cups water
  • 1 tblsp. vinegar
  • 1 tblsp. butter
  • 1 quart milk
  • salt and pepper
Scrub, scrape and clean salsify. Dice and cook in salted water, with 1 tablespoon of vinegar added, until tender. Drain, add butter and rich milk, salt and pepper. Bring to a boil and serve with crackers.

BEEF SOUP with DUMPLINGS

  • 1 soup bone
  • 2 lbs. stewing beef
  • 2 quarts water
  • salt
  • 1½ cups flour
  • 1 egg
  • ½ cup milk
  • pepper
Cook meat until tender and remove from the broth. Add water until you have 2 quarts of broth. Make dumplings by mixing beaten egg and milk into flour until about the consistency of pancake batter. Drop from teaspoon into the boiling broth to form small dumplings. Cook for 3 or 4 minutes.

POTATO SOUP (Gruumbier Suupe)

  • 4 cups diced potatoes
  • 1 medium onion
  • 3 tblsp. flour
  • 1 tblsp. butter
  • 1 qt. milk
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • salt and pepper
  • parsley
Boil potatoes and onion in small amount of water until soft. Add milk, salt and pepper then reheat. Brown flour in the butter and blend it slowly into the potato mixture. Add a little water to the beaten egg and stir into the soup. Let it cook for a few minutes and serve with a sprinkling of chopped parsley.

CHICKEN CORN SOUP

  • 1 stewing hen, about 4-lbs.
  • 4 qts. water
  • 1 onion, chopped
  • 10 ears corn
  • ½ cup celery, chopped with leaves
  • 2 hard-boiled eggs
  • salt and pepper
  • rivels
Put cut-up chicken and onion into the water and cook slowly until tender, add salt. Remove chicken, cut the meat into small (1-inch) pieces and return to broth, together with corn, which has been cut from the cob, celery and seasoning. Continue to simmer. Make rivels by combining 1 cup flour, a pinch of salt, 1 egg and a little milk. Mix well with fork or fingers to form small crumbs. Drop these into the soup, also the chopped, hard-boiled eggs. Boil for 15 minutes longer.

CORN SOUP with RIVELS

  • 3 cups fresh or canned corn
  • 2 qts. water
  • 1 cup rich milk
  • 1⅓ cups flour
  • 1 egg
  • 3 tblsp. butter
  • 1½ tsp. salt
  • parsley
Cook corn in water for 10 minutes. Make a batter by mixing egg, flour and milk together. Pour this batter through a colander, letting it drop into the boiling corn. Add butter and salt. Cook slowly in a covered pan for 3 minutes. Garnish with chopped parsley. Soup should be eaten immediately after rivels are cooked.

CHICKEN NOODLE SOUP

  • 4 lb. chicken
  • 2½ qts. water
  • 2½ tsp. salt
  • 3 cups cooked noodles
Cut a young stewing chicken into serving pieces, bring to a boil and simmer for 2½ hours, adding water as needed. Skim off the fat and add:
  • 1 tsp. peppercorns
  • 1 small onion, sliced
  • 1 carrot, sliced
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 tblsp. parsley, chopped
  • salt and pepper
Bring to boil again and add noodles, preferably home made noodles. Cook for 20 minutes longer

Main Dishes

CREAMED CABBAGE and DRIED BEEF

  • ½ large head cabbage
  • ¼ lb. dried beef
  • 1½ cups white sauce
  • ½ cup buttered crumbs
Chop cabbage coarsely and cook in salted water until tender, then drain. Chop the dried beef and soak in a little warm water for 10 minutes. Grease a casserole and in it place alternate layers of cabbage and dried beef. Pour the white sauce over it and top with buttered bread crumbs. Bake in moderate oven (350-f) 25 minutes.

DUTCH NOODLE CHEESE RING

  • 1 cup egg noodles
  • 3 tblsp. butter
  • 3 tblsp. flour
  • ½ tsp. salt
  • ½ tsp. paprika
  • 1½ cups milk
  • 2 eggs, well beaten
  • Swiss cheese (¼ to ½ lb.)
Boil noodles in salted water until tender. Drain and place in well-greased ring mold. Melt the butter, add flour and blend smooth. Stir in milk and cook, stirring constantly until it thickens. Add seasoning and cheese cut in small pieces. Cook until cheese melts. To ½ of the sauce add the well-beaten eggs and mix well. Pour this over the noodles. Set mold in pan of hot water and bake in moderate (350-f) oven 45 minutes. Unmold on large platter, pour over the remaining hot cheese sauce. Fill center with peas, and carrots or spinach.

POTATO FILLING

  • 2 cups mashed potatoes
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 1 qt. stale bread, cubed
  • 2 tblsp. butter
  • 1 onion, minced
  • ½ cup celery, diced
  • 1 tblsp. minced parsley
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • pinch of pepper
Put the beaten egg into the mashed potatoes and mix well. Melt the butter in a large skillet and saute the onion and celery. Stir in the bread crumbs to toast for a few minutes, stirring constantly. Add all the other ingredients, combine with the potatoes and mix thoroughly.

DUTCH CABBAGE ROLLS

  • 1 lb. ground beef
  • ⅓ cup rice, uncooked
  • 1 egg
  • 1 onion, chopped fine
  • 2 tblsp. shortening
  • Juice of 1 lemon
  • 1 can tomato soup
  • ½ cup celery, chopped
  • 1 tsp. sugar
  • 1 tsp. parsley, minced
  • 6 cabbage leaves
  • salt and pepper
Combine meat, salt, pepper, rice and egg, mix well. For the sauce: saute onion in the butter until soft. Add tomato soup and equal amount of water to onion, also celery, parsley, lemon juice, sugar, salt and pepper. Cook for 10 minutes. Wash the cabbage leaves and boil until tender. Put equal amounts of the meat mixture into cabbage leaves, roll tightly and secure with toothpicks. Place rolls in sauce pan, pour sauce over them, cover pan and cook very slowly for 3 hours.

DUCK UN KRAUT

Prepare a young duck for roasting. Place in a roasting pan and add 2 quarts of sauerkraut, 1 cup of water and 3 tablespoons granulated sugar. Cover and bake until duck is tender and golden brown. Serve with creamy mashed potatoes.

PORK POT PIE with DUMPLINGS

  • 8 loin pork chops
  • 2 qts. water
  • 1 dumpling recipe
  • 4 medium potatoes
  • 1 lb. sausage in casing
Boil the pork chops in water for ½ hour. Then add the potatoes cut in half and the sausage cut in 1 inch pieces. Cook until potatoes are almost done. Drop well-beaten dumpling dough into the boiling meat mixture, cover and cook 10 minutes.

SAUERBRATEN

2 inch thick piece of chuck, pot roast or tender boiling beef. Place in dish or bowl and cover with solution of half vinegar and half water, put in two large onions sliced. Do this two or three days before the meat is wanted. On the day before it is to be cooked cut 3 or 4 slices of bacon into 1" pieces and chop fine 1 tablespoon of the onion which has been soaking in the vinegar. Cut holes in the meat 1 or 2 inches apart and stuff bits of the bacon and chopped onion into the holes. Put the meat back into the solution, add 1 tablespoon whole cloves and 1 teaspoon whole allspice. Bake the meat as a pot roast in part of the solution, until tender. Use more of the solution, adding sugar to taste, in making the gravy which will be almost black.

HORSERADISH SAUCE
For Boiled beef or Corned beef

  • 2 tblsp. butter
  • 2 tblsp. flour
  • 1 cup milk
  • ¼ cup grated horseradish
  • ¼ tsp. dry mustard
  • salt and pepper
Melt butter, remove from heat and stir in flour. Add the milk gradually, stirring constantly, until mixture boils and thickens. Add salt and pepper and cook for 3 minutes more. Add the grated horseradish and dry mustard and blend well. Keep hot in double boiler. Serve on slices of boiled beef or corned beef.

SCHNITZEL MEAT

  • 1½ lbs. veal steak cut in cubes
  • 2 tblsp. shortening
  • 2 tblsp. flour
  • 1 cup tomato juice
  • 2 carrots, diced
  • 1 small onion, chopped fine.
  • Salt and pepper
  • Flour
Dredge meat with flour and season. Melt shortening (preferably bacon fat) and brown the meat in it. Remove meat from the pan, stir in the flour and blend. Add the tomato juice and stir well until mixture thickens. Add meat, carrots and onion. Cover closely and simmer for 45 minutes.

CHICKEN POT PIE

  • 1 cup flour
  • 1 egg
  • 2 tsp. baking powder
  • ½ egg shell of water
  • small teaspoon salt
Mix the above ingredients, roll out and cut in two inch squares. Flour chicken and fry in butter. Put layers of chicken, potato slices, sliced onion and squares of pot-pie dough. Barely cover with boiling water and cook for two hours.

HAM and NOODLES IN CASSEROLE

  • ½ lb. noodles
  • 1½ cups cooked ham, diced
  • 2 eggs, beaten
  • 1½ cups milk
Cook noodles in salted boiling water until soft. Pour into colander, drain and wash. Into a well greased casserole put alternate layers of noodles and ham. Beat eggs with the milk and pour over noodles and ham. Set casserole in pan of hot water and bake in moderate oven (350-f) for 30 minutes.

CHICKEN FRICASSEE

  • chicken cut up
  • butter for frying
  • 2 tablespoons flour
  • 2 tablespoons butter
  • boiled rice
  • 2 cups water
  • 12 small white onions
  • small pinch each of thyme,
  • celery salt and sage
Roll chicken pieces in flour and brown in butter. Add remaining ingredients and cook until tender, adding water so that there are 2 cups at end of cooking. Make gravy by adding 3 tablespoons of hot liquid to yolk of an egg. Stir thoroughly, then return to rest of liquid and cook five minutes. Pour over steamed rice.

BEEF POT PIE

  • 2 lbs. stewing beef
  • 6 medium potatoes
  • pot pie dough
  • 2 onions
  • chopped parsley
  • salt and pepper
Cut the beef into 1" cubes cover with water, season and boil until tender. Peel potatoes, cut in ¼" slices and slice the onion. Into the hot broth drop layers of potatoes, onions, a sprinkling of parsley and dough squares alternately, ending with dough on top. Cover and boil for 20 minutes. Stir meat thru pot pie.
For the pot pie dough:
To 2 cups of flour add a little salt, 1 egg, beaten and enough milk to make a stiff dough. Roll out thin (⅛") on floured board and cut into 2" squares. Equally good with veal or pork.

PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH BEEF WITH ONIONS

  • 1½ lbs. boiled beef
  • 2 tablespoons butter
  • 1 tablespoon vinegar
  • 1 onion
  • 2 tablespoons flour
  • 1 pinch of pepper
  • ½ cup meat stock
  • salt
Mince the onion. Simmer in butter until soft. Add flour and simmer until brown. To this add vinegar, salt, pepper and meat stock and let come to a boil. Cut the meat in slices and serve hot, with the onion sauce.

WIENER SCHNITZEL (Veal Cutlet)

  • 2 lbs. veal steak
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • salt
  • bread crumbs
  • lemon juice
  • pepper
Veal should be about ½ inch thick and cut into serving portions. Season with salt and pepper. Dip pieces in bread crumbs, then into the beaten egg and again in the crumbs. Let stand in the refrigerator a while before cooking. Brown in hot fat on both sides, cover and simmer for 30 minutes. Sprinkle with lemon juice.

HAMBURGER DINNER

  • 1 lb. hamburger
  • 3 cups potatoes, sliced
  • salt
  • 1 small head cabbage
  • 1 cup milk
  • pepper
Shred cabbage and put ½ of it in a greased casserole. Add ½ of the sliced potatoes and half of the hamburger a sprinkle of salt and pepper. Add remaining half in the same manner. Pour on the milk and bake in a moderate oven (350-f) for 2 hours.

CHICKEN BAKED in CREAM

  • 1 young chicken, cut up
  • ½ cup flour
  • 1½ tsp. salt
  • ⅛ tsp. pepper
  • 3 tblsp. butter
  • 1½ cups cream, sweet or sour
Sprinkle the pieces of chicken with salt and pepper and dredge in flour. Melt butter and fry chicken until a golden brown on all sides. Place the chicken in a casserole, pour the cream over it. Cover and bake in a moderate oven (350-f) for 2 hours. Serve with gravy made from the pan fryings left after frying the chicken.

DUTCH MEAT LOAF

  • 2½ lbs. hamburg
  • 2½ cups bread crumbs
  • 1 cup cheese (cubed small)
  • salt and pepper
  • ½ green pepper, chopped
  • 1 small onion, chopped
  • 2 eggs
  • 1 cup catsup
Mix all ingredients, form into two loaves. Pour some catsup over top of loaves. Bake at 350 until done.

LIVER NOODLES (Leberknoedel)

  • 1 lb. calf’s liver
  • 1 onion
  • 1 tablespoon butter
  • salt and pepper
  • 2 eggs
  • ½ cup flour
  • ¼ teaspoon cloves
  • ¼ teaspoon marjoram
Simmer the liver in boiling water for 30 minutes. Then trim off any skin or ligaments and grind the liver fine. Season. Mince the onion, add the butter, beat the eggs and add them. Work into this paste the flour, using enough to make the paste quite stiff. Form into small balls and poach them in any meat soup for 15 minutes. Serve them swimming in the soup.

STUFFED PEPPERS

  • 1½ lbs. ground beef and pork
  • 6 green peppers
  • 1 can tomato soup
  • 3 tblsp. rice, uncooked
  • 2 eggs, beaten
  • ½ tsp. salt
Mix the meat, rice, eggs and seasoning together. Cut tops off the peppers and soak in hot water for a couple of minutes. Scoop out seeds and fill with the meat mixture. Stand them in baking pan, pour the tomato soup over them and bake in slow oven (300-f) for 1 hour.

MEAT PIE

  • 1½ cups leftover meat
  • 3 tblsp. flour
  • ¼ cup drippings
  • 1 cup milk
  • 1 tblsp. grated onion
  • ⅓ cup chopped pepper
  • salt
  • pepper
Add flour to drippings and blend, add milk gradually and cook, stirring constantly until it thickens. Stir in the salt, onion and green pepper. Mix cut-up meat into the gravy and pour it into pastry lined baking dish. Top with crust and bake in hot oven (425-f) for 25 minutes.

STUFFED ACORN SQUASH

  • 3 acorn squash
  • ⅓ cup molasses
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1 lb. pork sausage
  • 1 tsp. sage
  • bread crumbs
Wash squash and cut in halves, remove seeds. Put a tablespoon of molasses in each half, sprinkle with salt and a pinch of powdered sage (if the sausage does not contain sage). Fill the cavity with sausage and top with bread crumbs. Place the squash halves in a baking pan, add about an inch of water to the pan. Cover and bake in hot oven (400-f) for 40 minutes. Remove cover and brown.

BAKED SPARERIBS and SAUERKRAUT
with Dumplings

  • Spareribs
  • sauerkraut
  • 2 cups flour
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 1 tsp. baking powder
  • 1 cup milk
Cut spareribs into serving portions and place in the bottom of roasting pan. Add the sauerkraut and a little liquid. Cover and bake in moderate oven (350-f) 1½ hours. Make dumplings by combining flour, baking powder, milk and egg. Drop by spoonfuls on sauerkraut, cover tightly and bake for 20 minutes.

SOUSE

Use 3 pigs feet or about 2 lbs. Scrape, wash and clean thoroughly. Place in stew pan with 1 chopped onion, ½ cup chopped celery and cover with cold water. Let it come to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer until meat is tender and comes easily from the bone. Pick meat from the bones, strain liquid, which should measure a scant 3 cups. (If less add water). Put meat and liquid into a bowl. Add 3 tblsp. strong cider vinegar, ¾ tsp. salt, black pepper and several thin slices of lemon. Chill overnight, remove surplus fat from the top. Turn out on a platter and serve with lemon slices and parsley.

PORK AND KRAUT (Speck Un Kraut)

  • 2 or 3 lbs. fresh pork
  • 1 qt. sauerkraut
  • water
  • salt and pepper
Put pork in large stew pan and cover with cold water, cook slowly for 1 hour. Add the sauerkraut making sure there is enough liquid in the pan to cover. Cook slowly for another hour. Season to taste. Serve with mashed or boiled potatoes.

MOCK DUCK

  • 1 thick round steak
  • 2 cups bread crumbs
  • 1 tblsp. onion minced
  • 2 eggs
  • ½ cup milk
  • 1 tblsp. butter
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • poultry seasoning
To make dressing beat eggs, add milk and pour over bread crumbs. Add the onion, seasoning and work in the butter mixing thoroughly. Spread the dressing over the meat and roll up carefully. Fasten with skewers or tie with string. Place in a greased pan and bake in medium hot oven (375-f) for 1½ hours. Slice to serve.

HOG MAW

  • 1 pig’s stomach
  • 2 lbs. smoked sausage meat, diced.
  • 3 cups boiled potatoes, diced
  • 3 cups sliced apples
  • 2½ cups bread crumbs
  • 1 medium onion, chopped
  • 2 cups chopped celery
  • chopped parsley
  • salt and pepper
Clean stomach well and soak in salt water. Combine all ingredients and mix well. Stuff the stomach with the mixture and sew up the opening. Simmer for 2 hours in a large kettle with water to cover. Remove to baking pan with hot fat, brown in hot oven (400-f) basting frequently. Slice with sharp knife.

SCHNITZ UN KNEPP

Boil a 3 lb. piece of ham for two hours. Pick over and clean 1 qt. of dried apples; soak in enough water to cover. When meat has boiled for the stated time, add dried apples and water in which they have been soaking and continue to boil for another hour. Prepare dumpling batter as follows:
  • 2 cups flour
  • 1 egg
  • 4 teaspoons baking powder
  • 3 tblsp. melted shortening
  • ¼ teaspoon pepper
  • 1 tablespoon milk
  • 1 teaspoon salt
Sift together the dry ingredients and mix the dough with egg, which has been well beaten, the melted shortening and the milk. Drop batter by spoonfuls into the boiling liquor of the ham and apples. Cover tightly and cook for 15 minutes. Raisins may be added if desired.

HAM and GREEN BEANS

  • 2 or 3 lbs. ham or ham bone
  • 1 qt. green string beans
  • potatoes
  • salt and pepper
Place ham in large pot and cover with water. Cook slowly for a couple of hours (less if the ham is tenderized) keeping plenty of water on the ham. Clean and break-up the string beans, put them in with ham and cook for 25 minutes more. Add the potatoes, which have been pared and cut-up, and cook slowly until ready. Season to taste.

SAUSAGE PATTIES

Equal amount of lean and fat fresh pork, ground. To each pound of this mixture, add 1 teaspoon salt, ⅛ teaspoon pepper, pinch each of sage and thyme. Add one egg beaten, mould into cakes and fry until brown. Wonderful with pancakes or waffles.

DUTCH MEAT ROLLS (Boova Shenkel)

  • 2½ lbs. beef
  • 10 potatoes
  • 2 tablespoons butter
  • 2 tablespoons minced parsley
  • 1 chopped onion
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • ½ cup milk
  • 3 eggs
  • 2½ cups flour
  • 2 teaspoons baking powder
  • 1 tablespoon shortening
  • 1 tablespoon butter
After seasoning the meat with salt and pepper, stew the meat for two hours. Then make dough with flour, baking powder, salt and the shortening. Mix into a pie-crust dough. Roll into a dozen circles 8 to 10 inches in diameter. Steam the potatoes, pared and sliced thin; add salt and pepper, 2 tablespoons of butter; the parsley and onions and then beat lightly the three eggs into the mixture. Put this mixture on the circles of dough after it has stood a little while. Fold half the circle of dough over like a half moon and press edges together tightly. Drop these into the pot with the meat and stew water. Cover tightly and cook for 30 minutes. Into a frying pan put a couple of tablespoons of fat skimmed from the stew before putting in the dough rolls, add to this 1 tablespoon of butter. In this brown small cubes of hard bread and stir in a half cup of milk. Pour this milk sauce over the Meat rolls when serving.
 

Salads

FRUIT SALAD DRESSING

  • ½ cup sugar
  • 1½ tblsp. flour
  • 2 eggs
  • ½ cup pineapple juice
  • ½ cup lemon juice
  • 1 cup whipped cream
Combine the fruit juices and stir slowly into the flour and sugar. Cook. Stirring constantly, until it thickens. (or cook in double boiler) Add the beaten eggs and cook for another minute. Let cool and fold in the whipped cream.

BEET and APPLE SALAD

  • 2 cups apples, diced
  • 2 cups cooked beets, diced
  • ¼ cup chopped nuts
  • 2 hard boiled eggs
  • ½ cup salad dressing
  • parsley
Mix the apples, beets, and chopped eggs. Add salad dressing (see Grandma’s salad dressing). Mix and garnish with chopped nuts and parsley.

A GOOD PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH SALAD DRESSING

  • 2 hard boiled eggs, mashed
  • a little grated onion
  • 3 tablespoons salad oil
  • 1 tablespoon vinegar
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • pinch of pepper
Mix well together, then put on lettuce and turn and stir until it is well covered with the dressing. Good with any green salad.
 

PEPPER CABBAGE

  • 2 cups shredded cabbage
  • 1 large green pepper
  • ½ cup hot salad dressing
  • 1 tsp. salt
Mix the cabbage, pepper, chopped fine and salt. Let stand 1 hour in cool place. Drain off all liquid. Make a hot dressing with:
  • 1 tblsp. butter
  • 1 tsp. flour
  • ½ tsp. dry mustard
  • salt and pepper
  • yolk of 1 egg
  • ½ cup vinegar
Melt the butter and blend in the flour. Add vinegar and stir until mixture thickens. Mix mustard, salt and pepper and add to the liquid. Cool for 4 minutes, pour over the beaten egg yolk and mix well. Cook for 1 minute more. Pour this over the pepper cabbage and mix well.

POTATO SALAD DRESSING

  • 1 beaten egg
  • ½ cup sugar
  • 1 tbsp. flour
  • ½ cup water
  • ½ cup vinegar
  • 2 tbsp. butter
  • ½ tsp. salt
  • ¼ tsp. pepper
Combine in the order given, stirring after each addition. Boil until thick. Cool before adding to the salad.

BEAN SALAD

  • 3 cups navy beans baked or boiled
  • 1 medium onion
  • 2 tblsp. pickle relish or 1-large pickle
  • 3 hard boiled eggs
  • 2 tblsp. vinegar
  • ⅔ cup boiled salad dressing
  • 1½ tsp. salt
Chop the onion fine, the boiled eggs, add the relish, or the pickle, chopped and the beans. Mix well together and add salt and salad dressing. Chill and serve. Green string beans, cut in 1-inch pieces may be used for this salad.

DANDELION SALAD

  • Young dandelion greens
  • 4 thick slices bacon
  • ½ cup cream
  • 2 tblsp. butter
  • 2 eggs
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1 tblsp. sugar
  • 4 tblsp. vinegar
  • ½ tsp. paprika
  • black pepper
Wash dandelions and pick over carefully. Roll in cloth and pat dry. Put into a salad bowl and set in warm place. Cut bacon in small cubes, fry quickly and pour over dandelions. Put butter and cream into a skillet and melt over low heat. Beat eggs, add salt, pepper, sugar and vinegar, then mix with the slightly warm cream mixture. Cook over high heat until dressing is quite thick. Pour, very hot, over the dandelions, stir well and serve.
 

PENNSYLVANIA COLE SLAW

  • 1 head young cabbage
  • ½ cup cream
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • ½ cup sugar
  • ½ cup vinegar
Beat cream, sugar, vinegar and salt together thoroughly until the dressing is like whipped cream. Discard outer leaves of cabbage. Shred the rest finely and combine with dressing just before it is ready to serve. Serves six. As variation: Add shredded green and red peppers.

DEVILED EGGS

  • 6 hard-boiled eggs
  • ½ tsp. prepared mustard
  • 2 tsp. soft butter
  • salt, pepper, paprika
Remove shells and cut eggs in half. Mash the yolks to a smooth paste, adding the mustard, butter, salt and pepper. When well mixed press into the cup-shaped egg whites, round the tops and sprinkle with paprika. For a special treat, add 2 tblsp. finely chopped ham or a small can of deviled ham to the egg yolk mixture.

HOT DUTCH POTATO SALAD

  • 4 slices bacon
  • ½ cup chopped onion
  • ½ cup chopped green pepper
  • ¼ cup vinegar
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 3 hard boiled eggs
  • ⅛ teaspoon pepper
  • 1 teaspoon sugar
  • 1 egg
  • 1 qt. hot, cubed, cooked potatoes
  • ¼ cup grated raw carrot
Dice bacon and pan fry. Add chopped onion and green pepper. Cook 3 minutes. Add vinegar, salt, pepper, sugar and beaten egg. Cook slightly. Add cubed potatoes, grated carrot and diced hard-cooked eggs. Blend and serve hot.

HOT SLAW

Shred cabbage finely. Boil in slightly salted water until tender. Drain. Serve hot thoroughly mixed with warm cooked salad dressing made as follows:
  • ½ teaspoon mustard
  • 1½ teaspoons salt
  • 1½ teaspoons sugar
  • 1½ tablespoons flour
  • ⅛ teaspoon pepper
  • 1 beaten egg
  • 1 cup milk
  • 4 tablespoons vinegar
  • 1½ tablespoons butter
Mix mustard, salt, sugar, flour, paprika and pepper. Add egg and mix thoroughly. Add milk and vinegar. Cook over hot water, stirring frequently until thick. Add butter. Cook and stir until melted.

CUCUMBER SALAD

  • 2 medium cucumbers
  • 1 medium onion
  • salt
  • 2 tblsp. vinegar
  • sour cream
  • pepper
Pare and thinly slice cucumber and onion sprinkle with a teaspoon of salt and let stand for a few minutes. Pat with towel or absorbent paper to take out all moisture possible. Place cucumbers and onions in serving dish, add the vinegar and mix. Pour on enough sour cream to half cover and dust with pepper. Chill.