dimarts, 31 de març de 2015

Hitler is a superior man. Don't you think he is a superior man?' As I hesitated, he looked fixedly at me, and added with a kindly smile: 'I should like to have your opinion of Hitler.' 'He is almost a man,' I replied. 'What?' 'Almost a man. I mean, not quite a real man.' 'Ach, so,' said Frank. 'You mean that he is an Übermensch, nicht wahr? --Superman, don't you? Yes, Hitler is not quite a real man; he is an Übermensch.' From his end of the table, one of the guests broke in: 'Herr Malaparte has written in one of his books that Hitler is a woman.' It was Himmler's man, the chief of the Gestapo of the government of Poland. His voice was cool, sweet, sad--a faraway voice. I raised my eyes, but I lacked the courage to look at him. That cool, sweet, sad voice of his, that faraway voice, had set my heart trembling slightly. 'Just so,' I added after a moment of silence. 'Hitler is a woman.' 'A woman?' exclaimed Frank gazing at me, his eyes filled with confusion and worry. Everyone remained silent, looking at me. 'If he is not quite a real man,' I said, 'why should he not be a woman? What harm would there be? Women are deserving of all our respect, love and admiration. You say that Hitler is the father of the German people, nicht wahr? Why couldn't he be its mother?'" Curzio Malaparte, *Kaputt* Un uomo? -risposi ridendo- Un uomo è cosa ancor più triste e più orrenda di questo mucchio di carne sfatta. Un uomo è orgolgio, crudeltà, tradimento, viltà, violenza. La carne sfatta è tristezza, pudore, paura, rimorso, speranza. Un uomo, un uomo vivo, è poca cosa, in confronto di un mucchio di carne marcia AS ESTÁTUAS DE GESSO DE LENINE E ESTALINE RIDÍCULAS E POMPOSAS TODOS LERAM A JOVEM GUARDA DE FEDAIEV OU AS LUTAS DOS GUERRILLEROS SÃO LIVROS RIDÍCULOS E FALSOS ....ARVORAVAM-SE EM PROLETÁRIOS ERAM A RAÇA MARXISTA ....OS JOVENS UCRANIANOS DIVERTIAM-SE QUEBRANDO À PEDRADA ESTALINE The price of freedom is high — far higher than that of slavery. And it is not paid in gold, nor in blood, nor in the most noble sacrifices, but in cowardice, in prostitution, in treachery, and in everything that is rotten in the human soul.” ― Curzio Malaparte, The Skin 0 likes like “It falls to the lot of even the most glorious flags to be thrown in the mud. Glory, what men call glory, is often thick with mud

UM LONGO CORTEJO DE FORMIGAS 

ROSAS ESTRANHAMENTE RELUZENTES 

AO LUAR I often ask myself,” said de Foxa, “what the function of the intellectuals will be in a new medieval period. I bet they would take advantage of the opportunity to try again to save European civilization.”
“Intellectuals are incorrigible,” said Westmann.

Is Kaputt for civilization or indifferent, I wondered after finishing it. There seems to be a moral stance, but it’s employed with the same tone used for descriptions of the decorative and culinary arts, so I wonder if it’s an affectation. And I wonder if my great admiration for the book is misplaced, or makes me complicit

Para manifeStar eSta verdade , conSideramos em três diíFerentes Tempos os EStragos , que os JeSuitas fizeram na Medicina: Convém a faberj antes dos Eftatutos ; no tempo dos EStatutos ; e depois dos EStatutos , até Serem expulSos deSTEs Reinos , e Seus Senhorios.Sendo que na infeliz Época , em que Elles legisla- ram para perderem , e arruinarem as Sciencias Juridicas, eram já muitas , e m^iito copiofas as luzes , com que a Jurif- prudencia brilhava nas Aulas , e efcritos da EfcoJa Cujaáana : Já efta única, e verdadeira Efcola da Jurifprudencia contava de idade pouco menos de hum Século : Já pelo longo decur- fo delle tinha confeguido eftablecer-fe , e florecer muito nas Univerfidades de França : Já eílas tinham produzido o gran- de numero de Sábios , e Eruditos Jurifconfultos , que honra- ram o Século XVI : E já eram tão reconhecidas as fuás gran- des ventagens fobre todas as outras Eícolas, que, reforman- do-fe pelo mefmo tempo os Eftiidos Juridicos da Univerfida- de de Paris , ella foi a que mereceo fer adoptada nos Eíla- tutos, que então fe formaram para aquella Academia; man- dando-fe, que ninguém fe adm.ittille aos Eftudos do Direito fem vir bem preparado para elles com o bom conhecimento das Línguas Latina , e Grega , das Letras Humanas , e das DiScíplinas FíloSoficas

Com que os Pais mandavam os Filhos á UniverSidade , 
para nella Seguirem os ESTudos Juridicos , Sem mais 
preparação para entrarem nelles , do que a Simples conftruiçao de 
algum Livro Latino. 

316 Do meSmo juramento dimanou também a pouca di- 
ligencia , e cuidado , que tinham univerfalmente todas as Or- 
dens , e ClaSSes dos JuriStas deStes Reinos , em cultivar , e 
aprender com a devida perfeição os Idiomas Latino , e Gre- 
go ; a Rhetorica ; a Lógica ; a Metafysica ; a Ethica ; o Di- 
reito Natural , Público Universal , e das Gentes ; a Hiíloria 
Civil , EccLeSIÁSTIca , e Literária o Methodo do Eftudo Jurí- 
dico ; e as outras noções , que deram matéria aos preceden- 
tes Eftragos , nos quaes demonftramos a grande dependência , 
que delias tem as Sciencias do Direito. 

317 Ao mefmo juramento fe deve também attribuir a 
total negligencia , com que as referidas Ordens dos Juriftas 
tem procedido , e procedem a refpeito do Eftudo das princi- 
paes Linguas vivas ; como sao por exemplo , a Portugueza , 
a Franceza ; da Hermenêutica ; da Crítica ; da Politica j da 
Económica ; da Fyfica ; da Mathematica ; da Medicina ; da 
Theologia , pela grande connexao , que com ella tem a Ju- 
rifprudencia Canónica ; da Geografia ; da Chronologia ; da 
Diplomática ; da Efphragiftica ; da Numifmatica ; da Lapida- 
ria ; e de alguns outros fubíidios da Jurifprudencia ; não fó 
não procurando ter delias as noções neccílhrias , e úteis para 
o fim da Jurifprudencia ; mas também defprezando-as de to- 
do , como fuperfluas , e como indifferentes , para o bom pro- 
greífo das Faculdades Jurídicas. 

3 1 8 Quando pelo contrario , ainda que as referidas Dif- 
ciplinas não fe poliam todas graduar por igualmente neceífa- 
rias aos Juriftas , como fe pode ver em Heuman , Sencken- 
berg, Brunquello , Maibachio, Hertelio , Thomafio , Leib- 
nitz, Doujat, Zallwein , Ickftatt, Floerkio, e em outros Ef- 
critores das Prenoções , Sublidios , e Adminiculos de himia , 

Oo ii e ou- 



ap2 Compendio Histórico 

e outra Junfprudencia , (cuja lição fe deve recommendar 
muito a todos os [uriftas ; porque nelJes não fó acharão a 
noticia das referidas Prenoçoes , mas também dos Authores , 
que melhor as trataram , e dos differentes grãos da fua utili- 
dade, para por eíles deverem regular o feu eíludo , e appli- 
cação , que a ellas devem fazer ) com tudo não ha entre el- 
las alguma , que lhes não feja muito intereíiãnte : E ainda as 
que parecem mais indifferentes , lhes são de hum utiliflimo 
ornato , e contribuem maravilhofarnente para fazerem real- 
çar, e fobrefahir os feus Eíludos em todas as occafiôes, que 
tiverem de mortrallos em público. 

319 E por eíla razão os Ju riflas , que afpirarem a pof- 
fuir a Jurifprudencia no grão mais perfeito , (como devem 
afpirar todos os que tem meios para poderem pcrtendello, 
fe quizerem chegar a poiUiilla em huma boa mediania) em 
todas devem procurar inífrun-fe com muito cuidado ; porque 
todas concorrem , e cooperam para Elles fe poderem fazer 
Juriíconfukos perfeitos , e faberem defempenhar dignamente 
todos os feus Gíficios , ou eíles fejam Forenfes , ou fejam 
Académicos. 

CONCLUSÃO DESTE CAPITULO. 

320 Além dos Eílragos , e Impedimentos já demonílra- 
dos, outros tem padecido, e padece ainda a Jurifprudencia; 
que ou foram poíitivamente maquinados pela mefma prejudi- 
cial Sociedade com a má Leíiislacâo dos feus Eftatutos ; ou 

-j , . fc> j ' 

sao venenoíos frutos das impeftadas fementes , que na mef- 
ma Legislação fe lançaram. E ainda que não foram tão ca- 
pitães, e tão devaftadores das Províncias Juridicas, como os 
referidos; com tudo fempre fervíram de eftorvo , e de rémo- 
ra aos palias dosjuriflas, c retardaram, e impediram o bom 
progrelFo dos Eíludos Juridicos : Concorrendo para fomentar 
a preguiça ^ promover a diilracçao 3 animar a ocioíidade ; di- 

mi- 



Parte n. Capitulo 11. 1^3 

ininuir a maíTa do Eíludo , que he o único inílrumento 
da acqiiiíição das Sciencias. E delles procede também Iuh 
ma grande parte dos gemidos , em que a Jurifprudencia 
nos dá a conhecer os maies , que a aífligem. Foram pois 
os principaes dos ditos Eílragos , e Impedimentos os fe- 
guintes. 

321 Primo : O pouco tempo lectivo , e a larga interrup- 
ção das Lições Públicas das Efcolas, por caufa da demazia- 
da extensão das ferias Académicas. 

322 Secundo: O máo emprego, que deíTe pouco tempo 
Icftivo fe fazia , confumindo fe grande parte delíe na inútil 
efcrita das cançadas Poflillas , que dictavam os Lentes. 

323 Tertío : A falta de refidencia dos Eftiidantes na 
Univerfidade ; por não terem provido a elía os mefmos Eíla- 
tutos ; e não haverem íido baílantes para obrigallos a refidir 
a providencia das Matriculas incertas , e outras , que fe de- 
ram depois para efte neceílario fim. 

324 Quarto : A exceíTiva liberdade, de que abufam os 
Eíludantes na Univeríidade ; por faltar nella a regulação de 
huma boa Policia , que mais os obrigue a viverem com a 
applicação , e focego , de que depende inteiramente o feu 
aproveitamento nos Eíludos. 

325" Quinto : A total izenção da Jurifdicção do Reitor 
da Univeríidade , que os Maquinadorcs dos mefmos Eftatu- 
tos haviam antecedentemente confeguido para as Eíizolas Me- 
nores ; por meio da qual ficaram Elles fendo árbitros dos 
Exames , que nellas faziam os Eíludantes para fe matricula- 
rem nas Faculdades Juridicas ; approvando-os , e reprovan- 
do-os livremente , como Elles queriam , e fem appellaçao, 
nem aggravo. 

32Ó Sexto : A demaziada , e nociva indulgência , que 
fe praticava nos Aílos , e Exames Públicos ; e na Collaçao 
dos Gráos Académicos , procedida em grande parte do inte- 
relfe, que havia em fe multiplicarem os mefmos A(.%Sy pa- 
ra 



294 Compendio Histórico 

ra fe augmentarem , e crefcerem os emolumentos das propi- 
nas, que nelies fe pagavam. 

327 Septhno : A inteira falta dos A6tos , e Exames Pú- 
blicos nos primeiros quatro annos do Curfo Jurídico ; da 
qual tomavam occaíião os Eíludantes para nelies fe não ap- 
pl içarem ao Eftudo ; refultando-lhes de tao longa ociofidade 
adquirirem o máo habito de nao eftudar , que depois lhes 
era muito diíEcultofo vencer, 

328 OFlavo : A total falta de exercícios Literários nas 
Aulas , em que mais fe defembaraçaíTem , e eftimulalTem os 
mefmos Eíludantes por meio da emulação , para ferem mais 
applicados , e eftudiofos. 

329 Todos eftes Eílragos, e Impedimentos aqui indica- 
dos ; os que temos já demonílrado ; e outros mais , que dei- 
xamos de apontar , por não caberem já no eílreito mappa 
defte Compendio , tem fido , e são ainda , as verdadeiras , e 
indubitáveis caufas da total corrupção , e decadência , em 
que fe acha prefentemente a Jurifprudencia na Univerfidade 
de Coimbra. 

330 E como fica já demonSTrado, que a primitiva raiz, 
e o primeiro manancial de todos elles, he maniíeílamente a 
péífima , e prejudicial Legislação dos Eftatutos , por que fe 
tem governado as duas Faculdades Juridicas defde o anno 
de 1598 até o prefente : E continuando efías a ferem regi- 
das pelos mefmos Eftatutos , não pode haver efperança algu- 
ma , de que elles hajam de ceifar , e poDía haver melhora- 
mento nos EStudos do Direito : 

dilluns, 30 de març de 2015

Denys, chassé de Syracuse, A Corinthe se fait pédant. Ce roi que tout un peuple accuse, Pauvre et déchu, se console en grondant. Maître d'école au moins il prime;......Rêvant un jour que Ton conspire ; Rôvant qu'il court de grands dangers, Ce fou , tremblant pour son empire , Voit ses marmots narguer deux étrangers. Chers étrangers, dans ce repaire Entrez, dit-il; sur eux vengez mes droits; Frappez ; pour eux je suis un père. Jamais Texil n'a corrigé les rois. Enfm, pères, mères, grand'mères De maint enfant trop bien fessé, L'accablant de plaintes amères. L'ancien tyran, de Corinthe est chassé. {Iris,) Mais pour agir encore en maître, Maudire encor sa patrie et ses lois, [Iris.) De pédant, Denys se fait prêtre. Jamais Texil n'a corrigé les rois, {bis.) LAIDEUR ET BEAUTE. Air : C>.%t à mon maitre en Vart de plaire. Sa trop grande beauté m'obsède; C'est un masque aisément trompeur. Oui, je voudrais qu'elle fAt laide, Mais laide, laide à faire peur. Mon fils, dit-il, ici d'un peuple esclave, » Le despotisme étouffait tous les cris. » Mais des captifs pour y loger la foule, » Il creusa tant au pied de chaque tour, » Qu'au premier choc le vieux château s'écmule. » Un beau soleil a fêté ce grand jour, » A fêté ce grand jour. La Liberté, rebelle antique et sainte. Mon fils, s'armant des fers de nos aïeux, A son triomphe appelle en cette enceinte L'Égalité, qui redescend des cieux. De ces deux sœurs là foudre gronde et brille. C'est Mirabeau tonnant contre la Cour. Sa voix nous crie : Encore une Bastille! Un beau soleil a fôlé ce grand jour, » A fêté ce grand jour. » Où nous semons chaque peuple moissonne. » Déjà vingt rois, au bruit de nos débats, » Portent, tremblants, la main a leur couronne, » Et leurs sujets de nous parlent tout bas. » Des droits de l'homme , ici , l'ère féconde » S'ouvre et du globe accomplira le tour. » Sur ces débris, Dieu crée un nouveau monde. » Un beau soleil a fêté ce grand jour, » A fêté ce grand jour. » De ces legons qu'un vieillard m'a données, Le souvenir dans mon cœur sommeillait. Mais je revois, après quarante années, Sous les verrous, le Quatorze Juillet, {bis,) Liberté! ma voix, qu'on veut proscrire. Redit ta gloire aux murs de ce séjour, {bis.) A mes barreaux l'aurore vient sourire ; Un beau soleil fête encore ce grand jour, Fête encore ce grand jour.

PASSEZ, JEUNES FILLES. 



Air : 



Dieu ! quel essaim de jeunes filles 
Passe et repasse sous mes yeux ! 
Au printemps toutes sont gentilles; 
Toutes; mais quoi! me voilà vieux. 
Cent fois redisons-leur mon âge : 
Les cœurs jeunes sont insensés. 
Endossons le manteau du sage. 
Passez, jeunes filles, passez. 

Voilà Zoé qui me regarde. 
Zoé, votre mère, entre nous, 
Dirait de combien je retarde 
Quand vient l'heure du rendez-vous. 
Pour un amant elle est sévère : 
S'il n'aime trop, il n'aime assez. 



208 CHANSONS 

Suivez les conseils d'une mère. 
Passez, jeunes filles, passez. 

Votre grand'mère, aimable Laure, 
Des amoui^s m'a transmis la loi. 
Elle veut renseigner encore, 
Bien qu'elle ait dix ans plus que moi 
Au salon ou sur la pelouse, 
Laure, jamais ne m'agacez : 
Grand'maman est un peu jalouse. 
Passez, jeunes filles, passez. 

Rose, vous daignez me sourire. 
Éprouvez-vous quelque accident? 
Chez vous, la nuit, ai-je ouï dire. 
On surprit un noble imprudent. 
Mais la nuit fait place à l'aurore; 
Aux maris gaiment vous chassez. 
Pour vous je suis trop jeune encore. 
Passez, jeunes filles, passez. 

Passez vite, folles et belles; 
Un doux feu cause votre émoi. 
Craignez que quelques étincelles 
N'arrivent de vous jusqu'à moi. 
Sous les murs d'une poudrière 
Par le temps presque renversés, 
La main devant votre lumière. 
Passez, jeunes filles, passez. 



DE BERANGER. 209 



LE 



CARDINAL ET LE CHANSONNIER. 



LA FORCE, 4899. 



Air : Je vais bientôt quitter Vempii'e. 

Quel beau mandement vous nous faites ** ! 

Prélat, il me comble d'honneur! 

Vous lisez donc mes chansonnettes? 

Ah! je vous y prends, Monseigneur, {bis.) 

Entre deux vins, souvent ma muse 

Perdit son bandeau virginal. 
Petit péché, si son ivresse amuse, 
Qu'en dites- vovs, monsieur le Cardinal? 

Ça, que vous semble de Lisette 

Qui dicta mes chants les plus doux? 

Vous vous signez sous la barrette! 

Lise a vieilli; rassurez- vous. 

Des jésuites elle raffole *® ; 

Et priant Dieu tant bien que mal , 
Pour leurs enfants Lise tient une école. 
Qu'en dites- vous, monsieur le Cardinal? 

II. 27 



210 CHANSONS 

A chaque vers patriotique *®, 

Je vous vois me faire un procès. 

Tout prélat se croit hérétique 

Qui chez nous a le cœur français. 

Sans y moissonner, moi , pauvre homme , 

J'aime avant tout le sol natal. 

J'y tiens autant que vous tenez à Rome. 

Qu'en dites- vous, monsieur le Cardinal? 

Puisque vous fredonnez mes rimes. 
Vous grand lévite ultramontain , 
N'y trouvez-vous pas des maximes 
Dignes du bon Samaritain *'? 
D'huile et de baume les mains pleines, 
Il e6t rougi d'aigrir le mal. 

Ah! d'un captif il n'eût vu que les chaînes. 

Qu'en dites- vous, monsieur le Cardinal? 

Enfin, avouez qu'en mon livre 

Dieu brille à travers ma gatté. 

Je crois qu'il nous regarde vivre ; 

Qu'il a béni ma pauvreté. 

Sous les verrous, sa voix m'inspire 

Un appel à son tribunal. 
Des grands du monde elle m'enseigne à rire. 
Qu'en dites- vous, monsieur le Cardinal? 

Au fond vous avez Tâme bonne. 
Pardonnez à l'homme de bien , 
Monseigneur, pour qu'il vous pardonne 
Votre mandement peu chrétien. 



DE BÉRANGER. 211 

Mais au Conclave on met la nappe '^, 

Partez pour Rome à ce signal. 
Le Saint-Esprit fasse de vous un pape ! 
Qu'en dites- vous , monsieur le Cardinal ? 



COUPLET. 

Air : Cesi le meilleur homme du mande. 

J'ai suivi plus d'enterrements 
Que de noces et de baptêmes ; 
J'ai distrait bien des cœurs aimants 
Des maux qu'ils aggravaient eux-mêmes. 
Mon Dieu, vous m'avez bien doté : 
Je n'ai ni force ni sagesse ; 
Mais je possède une gaîté 
Qui n'offense point la tristesse. 



MON TOMBEAU. 

AIR d^Aristippe. 

Moi, bien portant, quoi! vous pensez d'avance 
A m'ériger une tombe à grands frais ! 
Sottise! amis; point de folle dépense. 
Laissez aux grands le faste des regrets. 



212 CHANSONS 

Avec le prix ou du marbre ou du cuivre, 
Pour un gueux mort habit cent fois trop beau j 
Faites achat d'un vin qui pousse à vivre; 
Buvons gaiment l'argent de mon tombeau. 

 votre bourse un galant mausolée 
Pourrait coûter vingt mille francs et plus. 
Sous le ciel pur d'une riche vallée, 
Allons six mois vivre en joyeux reclus. 
Concerts et bals où la beauté convie, 
Vont de plaisirs nous meubler un château, 
le veux risquer de trop aimer la vie ; 
Mangeons gaiment Targent de mon tombeau. 

Mais je vieillis, et ma maîtresse est jeune. 
Or il lui faut des parures de prix. 
L'éclat du luxe adoucit un long jeûne; 
Témoin Longchamps où brille tout Paris. 
Vous devez bien quelque chose à ma belle. 
D'un cachemire elle attend le cadeau. 
En viager sur un cœur si fidèle, 
Plaçons gaiment l'argent de mon tombeau. 

Non , mes amis , au spectacle des ombres 

Je ne veux point d'une loge d'honneur. 

Voyez ce pauvre, au teint pâle, aux yeux sombres; 

Près de mourir, ah! qu'il goûte au bonheur. 

A ce vieillard qui, las de sa besace, 

Doit avant moi voir lever le rideau, 

Pour qu'au parterre il me garde une place, 

Donnons ejaîment Parwnl do mon tombeau. 



DE BERANG£R. 213 

Qu'importe à moi , que mon nom sur la pierre 
Soit déchiffré par un futur savant? 
Et quant aux fleurs qu'on promet à ma bière, 
Mieux vaut, je crois, les respirer vivant. 
Postérité, qui peux bien ne pas naître, 
A me chercher n'use point ton flambeau. 
Sage mortel, j'ai su par la fenêtre 
Jeter gaiment l'argent de mon tombeau. 



LES DIX MILLE FRANCS. 



LA FORCE, 4839. 



Ain : Ten souviens-tu, etc.^ on vaudeville de Taconnet, 

Dix mille francs, dix mille francs d'amende '^! 
Dieu! quel loyer pour neuf mois de prison! 
Le pain est cher et la misère est grande , 
Et pour longtemps je dine à la maison. 
Cher président, n'en peut-on rien rabattre? 
« Non! non! jeûnez et vous et vos parents. 
» Pour fait d'outrage aux enfants d'Henri-Quatrc 
» De par le Roi, payez dix mille francs! » 

Je pah*ai donc; mais, las! que va-t-on faire 
De cet argent que si bien j'omplolrais? 



34 



s 



214 CHANSONS 

D'un substitut sera-t-il le salaire? 
D'un conseiller paira-t-il les arrêts? 
Déjà s'avance une main longue et sale : 
C'est la police et ses comptes courants. 
Quand sur ma muse on venge la morale *^y 
Pour les mouchards comptons deux mille francs. 

Moi-même ainsi partageant ma dépouille, 
Sur mon budget portons les affamés. 
Au pied du trône une harpe se rouille : 
Bardes du sacre, êtes-vous enrhumés '•? 
Chantez, messieurs, faites pondre la poule; 
Envahissez croix, titres, biens et rangs. 
Dût-on cncor briser la sainte Ampoule ; 
Pour les flatteurs comptons deux mille francs. 

Que de géants là-bas je vois paraître *'' ! 
Vieux ou nouveaux, tous nobles à cordons. 
Fiers de servir, ils font au gré du mattre 
Signes de croix, saints ou rigodons. 
A tout gâteau leur main fait large entaille : 
Car ils sont grands, même infiniment grands. 
Ils nous feront une France à leur taille. 
Pour ces laquais comptons trois mille francs. 

Je vois briller chapes, mitres et crosses. 
Chapeaux pourprés, vases d'argent et d'or; 
Couvents, hôtels, valets, blasons, carrosses. 
Ah! saint Ignace a pillé le trésor. 
De mes refrains l'un des siens qui le venge, 
Promet mon âme aux gouffres^ dévorants '*. 



am 3^113 smasisis. 



D£ BERANGER. 2l;> 



S9 



Déjà le diable a plumé mon bon ange 
Pour le clergé comptons trois mille francs. 

Vérifions 9 la somme en vaut la peine : 

Deux et deux quatre; et trois, sept; et trois, dix. 

Cest bien leur compte. Ah! du moins La Fontaine, 

Sans rien payer fut exilé jadis *®. 

Le fier Louis eût biiïé la sentence 

Qui m'appauvrit pour quelques vers trop francs. 

Monsieur Loyal, délivrez-moi quittance **; 

Vive le Roi ! voilà dix mille francs **. 



LE JUIF ERRANT. 

Air du Chasseur rouge d'Amédée de Beaiplan. 

Chrétien, au voyageur souffrant 

Tends un verre d'eau sur ta porte. 

le suis, je suis le Juif errant. 

Qu'un tourbillon toujours emporte. (Ws.) 

Sans vieillir, accablé de jours, 

La fin du monde est mon seul rêve. 

Chaque soir j'espère toujours ; 

Mais toujours le soleil se lève. 

Toujours, toujours, {bis.) 1 
Tourne la terre où moi je cours, j 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 



2I« CHANSONS 

Depuis dix-huit siècles, hélas! 
Sur la cendre grecque et romaine, 
Sur les débris de mille états, 
I.'affreux tourbillon me promène, {bis.) 
J'ai vu sans fruit germer le bien, 
Vu des calamités fécondes; 
Et pour survivre au monde ancien, 
Des flots j'ai vu sortir deux mondes. 

Toujours, toujours, 
Tourne la terre où moi je cours , 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 

Dieu m'a changé pour me punir : 

A tout ce qui meurt je m'attache. 

Mais du toit prêt à me bénir 

Le tourbillon soudain m'arrache, {bis.) 

Plus d'un pauvre vient implorer 

Le denier que je puis répandre , 

Qui n'a pas le temps de serrer 

La main qu'en passant j'aime à tendre. 

Toujours, toujours, 
Tourne la terre où moi je cours, 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 

Seul, au pied d'arbustes en fleurs. 

Sur le gazon, au bord de Tonde, 

Si je repose mes douleurs. 

J'entends le tourbillon qui gronde, (bis.) 

Eh! qu'importe au ciel irrité 

Cet instant passé sous l'ombrage? 
 Faut-il moins que l'éternité 
Pour délasser d'un tel voyage? 

Toujours, toujours. 
Tourne la terre où moi je cours, 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 



Que des enfants vifs et joyeux, 
Des miens me retracent Timage ; 
Si j'en veux repaître mes yeux. 
Le tourbillon soufHe avec rage, (bis,) 
Vieillards, osez- vous à tout prix 
M'envier ma longue carrière? 
Ces enfants à qui je souris, 
Mon pied balatra leur poussière. 

Toujours, toujours. 
Tourne la terre où moi je cours , 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 

Des murs où je suis né jadis, 

Retrouvé-je encor quelque trace ; 

Pour m'arrêter je me roidis ; 

Mais le tourbillon me dit : « Passe! (Iris.) 

» Passe! » et la voix me crie aussi : 

» Reste debout quand tout succombe. 

» Tes aïeux ne t'ont point ici 

» Gardé de place dans leur tombe. » 

Toujours, toujours. 
Tourne la terre où moi je cours , 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 

lî. 28 



218 CHANSONS 

J^outrageai d*un rire inhumain 
L'homme-dieu respirant à peine... 
Mais sous mes pieds fuit le chemin ; 
Adieu 9 le tourbillon m'entraine. (bis.) 
Vous qui manquez de charité , 
Tremblez à mon supplice étrange : 
Ce n'est point sa divinité, 
C'est rhumanité que Dieu venge. 

Toujours, toujours, {bis,) 1 
Tourne la terre où moi je cours, j 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 



COUPLET. 



Air : TixnivcreZ'Vaiu un parlenienf :* 

Notre siècle, penseur brutal, 
Contre Delillc s'évertue. 
Tel vécut sur un piédestal 
Qui n'aura jamais de statue. 
Artiste^ poëte, savant, 
A la gloire en vain on s'attache ; 
C'est un linceul que trop souvent 
I^ postérité nous arrache. 



•A& 3aiLii\3 lîlV SiSISSiLa. 



DE BERANGER. 219 



LA FILLE DU PEUPLE. 

A m d'Àmtippe. 

Fille du peuple, au chantre populaire^ 
De ton prinlemps tu prodigues les fleurs. 
Dès ton berceau tu lui dois ce salaire; 
Ses premiers chants calmaient tes premiers pleurs. 
Va j ne crains pas que baronne ou marquise 
Veuille à me plaire user ses beaux atours. 
Ma muse et moi nous portons pour devise : 
Je suis du peuple ainsi que mes amours. 

Quand, jeune encor, j'errais sans renommée, 
D'anciens châteaux s'offraient-ils à mes yeux; 
Point n'invoquais, à la porte fermée, 
Pour m'introduire, un nain mystérieux. 
Je me disais : Tendresse et poésie 
Ont fui ces murs, chers aux vieux troubadours. 
Fondons ailleurs mon droit de bourgeoisie ; 
Je suis du peuple ainsi que mes amours. 

Fi des salons où l'ennui qui se berce 
Bâille entouré d'un luxe éblouissant ! 
Feu d'artifice éteint par une averse, 
Quand vient la joie, elle y meurt en naissant. 



En souliers fins, chapeau frais, robe blanche, 
Tu veux aux champs courir tous les huit jours 
Viens; tu me rends les plaisirs du dimanche. 
Je suis du peuple ainsi que mes amours. 

Quelle beauté, simple dame ou princesse, 
A plus que toi de décence et d'attraits; 
Possède un cœur plus riche de jeunesse. 
Des yeux plus doux et de plus nobles traits? 
Le peuple enfin s'est fait une mémoire : 
J'ai pour ses droits lutté contre deux Cours; 
Il te devait au chantre de sa gloire. 
Je suis du peuple ainsi que mes amours. 



LE CORDON, S'IL VOUS PLAIT! 



CHANSON FAITE A LA FORCE, 





LA FÊTE DE MARIE. 

Air du vaudeville des Scythes et des Anxasones. 

Allons aux champs fêter Marie; 
Hâtons-nous, le plaisir m'attend. 
Le pied poudreux, la main fleurie. 
Là-bas arrivons en chantant,  
Gai voyageur, j'ai mes pipeaux à prcndiv, 



DE BËRANGER. 221 

Pipeaax qu'un sourd a traités de sifflet. 

Portier, ce soir gardez-vous de m'attendre. ) . . 

/ vis. 
Je veux sortir; le cordon, s'il vous plaît; I 

Le cordon, le cordon, s'il vous platt. {bis.) 

Vite, portier; car on m'accuse 

D*oublier l'heure du repas. 

Jouy déjà gronde ma muse 

Dont il soutint les premiers pas *^. 
D'amis nombreux quelle troupe riante, 
Et de beautés quel brillant chapelet ! 
Dans sa prison TÂï s'impatiente. 
Je veux sortir; le cordon, s'il vous plaît; 
Le cordon, le cordon, s'il vous plaît. 

Beaux jours d'une fête si chère, 

A revenir toujours trop lents ! 

Pour nous, l'un de Tautre diffère 

Au plus par quelques cheveux blancs. 
Puisse Marie, à ses goûts si fidèle, 
Voir ses élus toujours au grand complet ! 
Volons chanter la liberté près d'elle. 
Je veux sortir; le cordon, s'il vous plait; 
Le cordon, le cordon, s'il vous plaît. 

Mon vieux portier dort dans sa loge : 
Mes petits vers vont refroidir. 
D'un digne époux j'y fais l'éloge ; 
Forçons Marie à m'applaudir. 
Puis, montrons-la courant plaindre des peines, 




Rendre au malheur l'espoir qui s'envolait, 
Et consoler un ami dans les chaines. 
Je veux sortir; le cordon , s'il vous platt; 
Le cordon  le cordon, s il vous plaît. 

Mais mon |K)rtier, las de se taire, 

Répond qu on ne sort pas ainsi ; 

Que j'écrive au propriétaire ; 

Que je dois trois termes ici **. (bis.) 
Fôtez Marie, ô vous à qui Ton ouvre! 
Sans moi, pour elle, enrantez maint couplet. 
Je rougirais d'envoyer dire au Louvre : | 
Je veux sortir; le cordon, s'il vous plait; ) 
Le cordon, le cordon, s'il vous plait. 
 

J'ai faim, dit-il; et bien vite Je sers piquette et pain bis; Puis il sèche ses habits. Même à dormir le feu l'invite. Au réveil, voyant mes pleurs, Il me dit : Bonne espérance! Je cours de tous ses malheurs, Sous Paris venger la France. Il part; et comme un trésor J'ai depuis gardé son verre. Gardé son verre. — Vous l'avez encor, grand'mère ! Vous l'avez encor ! I^ voici. Mais à sa perte I^ héros fut entraîné. Lui, qu'un pape a couronné, Est mort dans une île déserte. Longtemps aucun ne l'a cru ; On disait : Il va paraître. Par mer il est accouru ; L'étranger va voir son maître. Quand d'erreur on nous tira. Ma douleur fut bien amère ! Fut bien amère ! — Dieu vous bénira, grand'mère: LES SOUVENIRS DU PEUPLE Air : Passez votre chemin , beau sire. On parlera de sa gloire Sous le chaume bien longtemps. L'humble toit, dans cinquante ans. Ne connaîtra plus d'autre histoire. Là viendront les villageois Dire alors à quelque vieille : Par des récits d'autrefois, Mère, abrégez notre veille. Bien , dit-on , qu'il nous ait nui , IvC peuple encor le révère, Oui, le révère. Parlez-nous de lui , grand'mère ; Parlez-nous de lui. {bis.) Mes enfants , dans ce village , Suivi de rois, il passa. Voilà bien longtemps de c^ : Je venais d'entrer en ménage. A pied grimpant le coteau Où pour voir je m'étais mise. Il avait petit chapeau Avec redingote grise. Près de lui je me troublai , Mais à rhomme on crie en tout lieu : K Tu nais y bonjour; tu meurs, adieu. » Quand nous mourons, vieux ou bambin , Homme ou femme , A Dieu soit notre âme ! Quand nous mourons, vieux ou bambin, On vend le corps au carabin . Nous n'avons donc, exempts d'orgueil. De lois vaines, De lourdes chaînes; Nous n'avons donc, exempts d'orgueil, Ni berceau, ni toit, ni cercueil. Mais, croyez-en notre gaîté. Noble ou prêtre, Valet ou maître; Mais, croyez-en notre galté. Le bonheur c'est la liberté. .Oui, croyez-en notre galté. Noble ou prêtre , Valet ou maître; Oui , croyez-en notre galté , le bonheur c'est la liberté. D'où nous venons? Ton n'en sait rien. L'hirondelle D'où vous vient-elle? D'où nous venons? l'on nen sait rien. Où nous irons, le sait-on bien? Sans pays, sans prince et sans lois, Notre vie Doit faire envie; Sans pays, sans prince et sans lois, L'homme est heureux un jour sur trois. Tous indépendants nous naissons, Sans église Qui nous baptise; Tous indépendants nous naissons Au bruit du fifre et des chansons. Nos premiers pas sont dégagés, Dans ce monde OÙ l'erreur abonde ; Nos premiers pas sont dégagés Du vieux maillot des préjugés. Au peuple, en butte à nos larcins. Tout grimoire En peut faire accroire; Au peuple, en butte à nos larcins. Il faut des sorciers et des saints. Trouvons-nous Plutus en chemin , Notre bande 184 CHANSONS Gaiment demande ; Trouvons-nous Piutus en chemin, En chantant nous tendons la main. Pauvres oiseaux que Dieu bénit , De la ville Qu'on nous exile! Pauvres oiseaux que Dieu bénit , Au fond des bois pend notre nid. A tâtons r Amour, chaque nuit, Nous attèle Tous pêle-mêle ; A tâtons P Amour, chaque nuit, Nous attèle au char qu'il conduit. Ton œil ne peut se détacher, Philosophe De mince étofle ; Ton œil ne peut se détacher Du vieux coq de ton vieux clocher. « Voir c'est avoir. Allons courir ! Vie errante Est chose enivrante. Voir c'est avoir. Allons courir ! Car tout voir c'est tout conquérir. Mais à rhomme on crie en tout lieu , Qu'il s'agite, ou croupisse au gite LE MARIAGE DU PAPE. Air du Méléagre champenois. Vite en carrosse , Vite à la noce ; Juif ou chrétien, tout le monde est prié. Vite en carrosse, Vile à la noce. Alléluia! le Pape est marié. Ainsi chantait un fou que je crois sage , Sinon qu'en pape il s'érigeait un jour, Disant : Corbleu! tâtons du mariage; Pour le clergé sanctifions l'amour. Vite en carrosse. Vite à la noce; Juif ou chrétien, tout le monde est prié. Vite en carrosse , Vite à la noce. Alléluia! le Pape est marié. Oui, je suis Pape, et prends femme qui m'aime Chantons! dansons! bonne chère et bon vin! Faisons la noce, et qu'avant neuf mois même, Mon premier-né soit tenu par Calvin, Des follets brillent dans l’ombre, Et la voix que j’entendais Se mêle aux cris d’un grand nombre De lutins, de farfadets. Au bruit d’une aigre trompette Le sabbat a commencé » — Pierre-Jean de Béranger, Chansons (1829)

Du célibat rompez, rompez l'entra ve, 
Prélats, curés, chartreux et capucins. 
Vous, plus d'erreurs, Florentins du conclave : 
La foi chancelle, il faut faire des saints. 

Vite en carrosse, 

Vite à la noce; 
Juif ou chrétien, tout le monde est prié. 

Vite en carrosse, 

Vite à la noce. 
Alléluia! le Pape est marié. 

Nous étions tous intolérants en diable; 
Nous changerons sous le joug conjugal. 
On est moins prompt à brûler son semblable 
Quand à le faire on s'est donné du mal. 

Vite en carrosse , 

Vite à la noce; 
Juif ou chrétien, tout le monde est prié. 

Vite en carrosse. 

Vite à la noce. 
Alléluia! le Pape est marié. 

Çà, ma papesse, un jour qu'on puisse dire 
Qu'en bons époux tous deux avons vécu ; 
Vous le sentez : l'enfer mourrait de rire , 
S'il apprenait que le Pape est cocu. 

Vite en carrosse. 
Vite à la noce; 
 A Paris étant un jour« 
Je le vis avec sa cour : 
II se rendait à Notre-Dame. 
Tous les cœurs étaient contents; 
On admirait son cortège. 
Chacun disait : Quel beau temps! 
Le ciel toujours le protège. 
Son sourire était bien doux ; 
D'un fils Dieu le rendait père, 
Le rendait père. 

— Quel beau jour pour vous, grand'mère! 
Quel beau jour pour vous! 

Mais, quand la pauvre Champagne 
Fut en proie aux étrangers, 
Lui, bravant tous les dangers. 
Semblait seul tenir la campagne. 
Un soir, tout comme aujourd'hui , 
J'entends frapper à la porte; 
J'ouvre, bon Dieu! c'était lui 
Suivi d'une faible escorte. 
Il s'asseoit où me voilà, 
S'écriant : Oh! quelle guerre! 
Oh! quelle guerre! 
 

diumenge, 29 de març de 2015

BLACK ABYSSUM RELATIVISTICUM SUNT NEGRO ABISMO SEM LUX PODE SER CLARO OU MESMO ESCURO...Quantum theorists began their own long search for unification with the discovery of the standard model, then the electroweak force and finally the hope that gravity would eventually submit to quantum analysis. They have utterly failed to achieve this last step toward unification. All that science can say for certain is that there are presently two theories that can claim to represent the most fundamental nature of reality: Quantum theory and relativity. Unfortunately, these two are mutually incompatible. The near complete dominance of the quantum paradigm over the last century has led most physicists to conclude that any future theory that unifies physics must be based upon a discrete quantum model rather than a continuous relativistic model. The attitude that discreteness can replace continuity at all levels of reality is problematic: It reflects a general disregard for the depth and extreme nature of the major differences between the two theories. This disregard has led scientists to speculate on the structure of reality at as small a level as the Planck length, resulting in the development of quantum loop theories and other attempts to find a quantum gravity theory. Whether the existence of a major conflict between the discrete and continuous is acknowledged or not, the fact that these two models of reality are mutually incompatible is generally minimized or belittled by many theoretical scientists who overwhelmingly assume that discreteness offers the only possible solution to the problem of unification-A century and a half ago, a revolution in human thought began that has gone largely unrecognized by modern scholars: A system of non-Euclidean geometries was developed that literally changed the way that we view our world. At first, some thought that space itself was non-Euclidean and four-dimensional, but Einstein ended that 'speculation' when he declared that time was the fourth dimension. Yet our commonly perceived space is four-dimensional. Einstein unwittingly circumvented that particular revolution in thought and delayed its completion for a later day, although his work was also necessary for the completion of that revolution. That later day is now approaching. The natural progress of science has brought us back to the point where science again needs to consider the physical reality of a higher-dimensional space. Science must acknowledge the truth that space is four-dimensional and space-time is fivedimensional, as required by accepted physical theories and observations, before it can move forward with a new unified fundamental theory of physical reality

Recent attempts to overcome this incompatibility, such as the supergravity,
superstring and brane theories, have relied heavily upon the concept of hyperdimensional
spaces. These models have been unsuccessful, yet the overall notion
of hyper-dimensionality still offers a way out of the dilemma. Einstein first
rendered the notion of a higher-dimensional reality plausible in 1905, but the
revolution that Einstein began when he unified three-dimensional space with
time to form a four-dimensional space-time continuum has never been fully
realized. In the meantime, the opposing quantum concept may have fully run its
course and reached its inherent theoretical limits. The modem unification
theories based upon the quantum model do not seek to rectify the fundamental
differences between the quantum theory and special relativity. Quantum field
theories only calculate quantum effects in the relativistic limit; they do not unify
the theories at the necessary fundamental level that is often claimed. Many
scientists ignore the extent and importance of the differences between continuity

and the discrete and instead worry about the insignificant problems of indeterminism
and counting bits of information. So the latest attempts at unification
have failed utterly even though the quantum theory has been attempting to
quantize gravity for several decades.
There are many levels to the hyper-dimensionality problem, many of which
have not yet been explored even though the central problem of dimensionality
for present day science dates back a century and a half. Science has been misled
and has failed to recognize the significance of a far more fundamental revolution
that began in the 1850s when Bernhard Riemann developed a generalized
system of non-Euclidean geometries (Riemann, 1854). Riemann's work directly
implied that space is four-dimensional as well as continuous. His new system of
geometry remained relatively unknown for more than a decade and was only
popularized within the scientific community in the late 1860s. Simultaneously,
James Clerk Maxwell developed Michael Faraday's field concept of electromagnetism
into a complete theory of electromagnetism. Whether the timing of
these developments was coincidental or not, and only a careful review of
historical documents can determine if the simultaneous development of these
theories was truly a coincidence, the two fundamental concepts of the continuity
of the electromagnetic field and the four-dimensionality of space are physically
related. There are three logical proofs that this fact is true.
The first logical proof derives directly from Maxwell's electromagnetic theory
and deals directly with the inability of science to sufficiently explain the nature
of the vector or magnetic potential used to explain magnetic induction. The
second logical proof deals with the nature of matter itself as represented by the
Yukawa potential and the atomic nucleus. The Yukawa potential is normally
used to explain how electrical repulsion is overcome to bind particles within the
nucleus. However, the mathematical expression for the potential also matches
the general shape of space-time curvature within the individual particles that
combine to form the nucleus. And finally, the last proof is a more general argument
dealing with the simple three-dimensional orientations of spiral galaxies
relative to the Riemannian curvature of the universe as a whole. Although these
proofs are independent of any particular modern hyper-dimensional theory, they
are supported by Kaluza's theory of five-dimensional space-time.
Electromagnetism Speaks Up
The popular concept of a 'force field' is completely erroneous. Even in
a classical sense, no force is associated with a field until a material particle or
body interacts with it. Force is not a characteristic of the field alone. The
interaction of the field and matter results in the force, but the interaction can also
be characterized by a potential energy. The energy results from the force acting
on the particle in one sense, or from the relative position of the particle in the
field in another sense. What exists at any particular position in the field before
the interaction takes place is called the potential. So a physical field is characterized
by the potential of the field, not a force.
526 J. E. Beichler
Gravity presents a good example for the concept of potential. Gravitational
field strength decreases radially outward from the center of gravity of a material
body like the earth according to the inverse square law. All points that are
equidistant from the center of gravity form a surface in three-dimensional space
along which the gravitational potential is constant, an equipotential surface. At
each point on this surface, the surface is perpendicular to a radial line drawn from
the center of gravity. A material body orbiting the earth would have a constant
speed along any equipotential surface. Electricity presents another simple
example. In this case, the units of potential are 'volts', a common electrical unit
with which everyone is familiar. Equipotential surfaces representing specific volt
measurements are a commonly accepted fact of electrical fields. The fact that an
equipotential surface can be formed and that the surface is perpendicular to the
radius of curvature at each and every point where they intersect is a general
property of fields. From a theoretical point-of-view, equipotential surfaces must
exist for all physical fields. For any field, successive equipotential surfaces form
onionskin-like concentric surfaces around point charges or charged bodies.
There is a direct equivalence between electricity and magnetism and that
equivalence forms the basis of the electromagnetic theory. Any physical quantities
or properties of electricity correspond to similar quantities and properties
for magnetism. But that equivalence has not yet been fully realized since there is
no such thing as magnetic 'volts' or measurable magnetic potential. Magnetic
potential has been, is now and will be in the future a mathematical entity alone,
given the three-dimensionality of space. Consider a simple magnetic field, perhaps
that of a bar magnetic. An equipotential surface cannot be drawn or
represented visually as it can for an electric field, although magnetic field lines
can still represent the field. A line perpendicular to any field line through a given
point on that field line, representing the magnetic vector potential at that point,
cannot be connected to neighboring points of equal potential on other field lines
to form a continuous surface. In other words, an equipotential surface cannot be
formed in the three-dimensional space of the magnetic field represented by the
field lines. All equipotential surfaces would go through the same point on a field
line in three-dimensional space, which is impossible, but no other conclusion
can be reached from the given physical geometry of the magnetic field.
According to Roger Penrose, the magnetic potential is "not uniquely
determined by the field F, but is fixed to within the addition of a quantity
dO where O is some real scalar field." The scalar field is taken to be a purely
mathematical entity, such that the magnetic potential A "is not a locally measurable
quantity" (Penrose, 2005). The magnetic potential A exists, but no physical
experiment can measure or otherwise determine the value of A plus the
additional quantity dO, so the value of A alone cannot be uniquely determined.
In a sense then, the magnetic potential exists only at the point of intersection, not
beyond that point in three-dimensional space. Magnetic potential is purely
a point phenomenon in three-dimensional space no matter what its value. It is
a mathematical paradox, but the paradox can be solved if a higher dimension to

space is used. Any connection between a given potential on one field line and
neighboring field lines must be in another dimension (orthogonal direction)
other than the three normal directions of common space, in order for there to
exist an equipotential surface. The 'gauge factor' dO mentioned by Penrose
actually represents a minuscule measurement or perturbation in the fourth
direction that does not otherwise affect normal three-dimensional field
variations in the local environment. This fact can also be seen in the equations
that are commonly used to express and model magnetic potential.
Although it cannot be described or measured in a normal three-dimensional
space, the magnetic potential can be expressed mathematically, by its relationship
to the field,

All the zeros of the zeta function have real part 1/2. First, here is the zeta function: (s) = 1 + 1 2s + 1 3s + 1 4s + 1 5s + 1 6s + 1 7s + 1 8s + 1 9s + 1 10s + 1 11s + . . . Now, the real part 1/2 refers to a complex number. A complex number is in the form a + bi where a and b are real numbers and i2 = −1. Complex numbers are graphically represented by a coordinate system on a two dimensional plane. The horizontal axis represents the a coordinate and the vertical axis represents the i coordinate. The line at (.5, bi), which extends upwards without bounds, shows where the zeros of the zeta functionmust fall by Riemann’s hypothesis (see Figure 2). An input to a function, such as (.5, bi), that results in a zero value, is called a zero of the function.TODAS AS GEOMETRIAS NÃO EUCLIDIANAS SÃO CONSTRUÇÕES SÓLIDAS DE EDIFÍCIOS DITOS LÓGICOS E COERENTES QUE NÃO CONDUZEM A LADO NENHUM NEM A NENHUMA CONTRADIÇÃO E ONDE O POSTULADO DE UM GREGO CHAMADO EUCLIDES NÃO É ACEITE NEM UNTADO COM AZEITE Hans Bethe (1906 - 2005) o ciclo de BETHE For a more-massive protostar, the core temperature will eventually reach 10 million kelvin, initiating the proton–proton chain reaction and allowing hydrogen to fuse, first to deuterium and then to helium. In stars of slightly over 1 M☉ (2.0×1030 kg), the carbon–nitrogen–oxygen fusion reaction (CNO cycle) contributes a large portion of the energy generation. The onset of nuclear fusion leads relatively quickly to a hydrostatic equilibrium in which energy released by the core exerts a "radiation pressure" balancing the weight of the star's matter, preventing further gravitational collapse. The star thus evolves rapidly to a stable state, beginning the main-sequence phase of its evolution. A new star will sit at a specific point on the main sequence of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, with the main-sequence spectral type depending upon the mass of the star. Small, relatively cold, low-mass red dwarfs fuse hydrogen slowly and will remain on the main sequence for hundreds of billions of years or longer, whereas massive, hot O-type stars will leave the main sequence after just a few million years. A mid-sized yellow dwarf star, like the Sun, will remain on the main sequence for about 10 billion years. The Sun is thought to be in the middle of its main sequence lifespanBelief propagation is a remarkably effective tool for inference, even when applied to networks with cycles. It may be viewed as a way to seek the minimum of the Bethe free energy, though with no convergence guarantee in general. A variational perspective shows that, compared to exact inference, this minimization employs two forms of approximation: (i) the true entropy is approximated by the Bethe entropy, and (ii) the minimization is performed over a relaxation of the marginal polytope termed the local polytope. Here we explore when and how the Bethe ap- proximation can fail for binary pairwise models by examining each aspect of the approximation, deriving results both analytically and with new experimental methods. 1 INTRODUCTION Graphical models are a central tool in machine learning. However, the task of inferring the marginal distribution of a subset of variables, termed marginal inference , is NP-hard (Cooper, 1990), even to approximate (Dagum and Luby, 1993), and the closely related problem of computing the normalizing partition function is #P-hard (Valiant, 1979). Hence, much work has focused on finding efficient approx- imate methods. The sum-product message-passing algo- rithm termed belief propagation is guaranteed to return ex- act solutions if the underlying topology is a tree. Further, when applied to models with cycles, known as loopy belief propagation (LBP), the method is popular and often strik- ingly accurate (McEliece et al., 1998; Murphy et al., 1999). A variational perspective shows that the true partition func- tion and marginal distributions may be obtained by mini- mizing the true free energy over the marginal polytope. The standard Bethe approximation instead minimizes the Bethe free energy, which incorporates the Bethe pairwise approx- imation to the true entropy, over a relaxed pseudo-marginal set termed the local polytope. A fascinating link to LBP was shown (Yedidia et al., 2001), in that fixed points of LBP correspond to stationary points of the Bethe free en- ergy F . Further, stable fixed points of LBP correspond to minima of F (Heskes, 2003). Werner (2010) demonstrated a further equivalence to stationary points of an alternate function on the space of homogeneous reparameterizations. In general, LBP may converge only to a local optimum or not converge at all. Various sufficient conditions have been derived for the uniqueness of stationary points (Mooij and Kappen, 2007; Watanabe, 2011), though convergence is of- ten still not guaranteed (Heskes, 2004). Convergent meth- ods based on analyzing derivatives of the Bethe free energy (Welling and Teh, 2001) and double-loop techniques (Hes- kes et al., 2003) have been developed. Recently, algorithms have been devised that are guaranteed to return an approx- imately stationary point (Shin, 2012) or a point with value -close to the optimum (Weller and Jebara, 2013a). However, there is still much to learn about when and why the Bethe approximation performs well or badly. We shall explore both aspects of the approximation in this paper. In- terestingly, sometimes they have opposing effects such that together, the result is better than with just one (see x 4 for an example). We shall examine minima of the Bethe free energy over three different polytopes: marginal, local and cycle (see x 2 for definitions). For experiments, we explore two methods, dual decomposition and Frank-Wolfe, which may be of independent interest. To provide another bench- mark and isolate the entropy component, we also exam- ine the tree-reweighted (TRW) approximation (Wainwright et al., 2005). Sometimes we shall focus on models where all edges are attractive , that is neighboring variables are pulled toward the same value; in this case it is known that the Bethe approximation is a lower bound for the true par- tition function (Ruozzi, 2012). Questions we shall address include: In attractive models, why does the Bethe approxima- tion perform well for the partition function but, when local potentials are low and coupling high, poorly for marginals...

On the contrary, the mathematics of previous generations is generally
considered to be unrigorous and na¨ıve, stated in obscure terms
which can be vastly simplified by modern terminology, and full of
false starts and misstatements which a student would be best advised
to avoid. Riemann in particular2 is avoided because of his reputation
for lack of rigor, because of his difficult style, and because of a
general impression that the valuable parts of his work have all been
gleaned and incorporated into subsequent more rigorous and more
readable works.

dissabte, 28 de març de 2015

OS MOJAVE ACHAM NATURAL QUE OS DOUTORES MATEM POR FEITIÇARIA É A SUA ESSÊNCIA COMO O É A ESSÊNCIA DOS MILHAFRES MATAREM AVEZINHAS PARA AS CONSUMIR ...O MÉDICO-FEITICEIRO MOJAVE AFIRMA A UM FILHO DE UMA DAS SUAS VÍTIMAS ...NÃO SABES QUE EU MATEI TEU PAI...OU A UM DOENTE ...SOU EU QUE ESTOU A MATAR-TE MATAR SOBRENATURAL....MISTELA DE TERROR E CULPA O MÉDICO-FEITICEIRO É ALVO DE DESCONFIANÇA RELUTÂNCIA TERROR PERANTE UM ENTE CAPAZ DE FAZER MAIS MAL QUE BEM NÃO SE VINGAVA A SUA MORTE E SE SUSPEITAVA DA SUA ACÇÃO ERA MORTO the Pueblo (Zuni) to be Apollonian, valuing sobriety and inoffensiveness and being controlled and reserved in nature, seeking to follow and reinforce the bounds of their cultural norms; she contrasts the Pueblo Indians with the Plains, and other North American Indians, stating they are Dionysian and characterizing them as prone to irrational excess and continually testing the boundaries of their existence. In the next chapter she presents the Dobu, describing them as paranoid, fearful and suspicious. Finally, she discusses the Kwakiutl, stating they are megalomaniacal in nature, discussing their competitive potlatch to demonstrate their need to dominate others. It is important to take note that Benedict’s accounts of the Zuni came from her own research, while ethnographic material about the Dobu came from Margaret Mead and Reo Fortunes work in New Guinea, and the chapter on the Kwakiutl was largely formed from Boas’ work in British Columbia. In discussing each of these cultures, she presents their perspectives on marriage, family, resources, animism, and warfare/violence. Benedict’s hypothesis is that all cultures can be described as Apollonian, Dionysian, paranoid and or megalomaniacal and that some cultures are combinations of these traits; however, in assigning these terms she is not attempting to create typologies, as PERUVIAN INCAS RUNNING NAKED AND RAPING ALL WOMEN THEY CATCH AS A RITUAL FOR FERTILITY ...AND THAT IS A DIONISIAN CULTURE The main premise of the culture and personality paradigm is that socialization constructs personality patterns by shaping an individuals behaviors, thoughts, and norms, and that the behaviors adults display are culturally patterned, allowing them to fit in and function productively within their surroundings OS ZUNIS NÃO EXERCITAM A BRUXARIA NOS PUEBLO A BRUXARIA É UM COMPLEXO ANSIOLÍTICO A ANSIEDADE LEVA-OS A SUSPEITAR DOS RESTANTES DE UM MODO VAGO E UM HOMO DA GAMA BAIXA QUE ATRAIA DESAGRADO GERAL OU SUFICIENTE FICA EM CONDIÇÃO TERMINAL COM DESENLACE FATAL É ACUSADO DE BRUXARIA MAS A MORTE NÃO RESULTA DE BRUXARIA POIS SÓ EM TEMPOS DE EPIDEMIAS É QUE AS BRUXAS SÃO PERSEGUIDAS EM FASES DE MAXIMIZAÇÃO DA ANSIEDADE .

Successful societies reproduce excessively as a hedge against the death (accidental or purposeful) of those intended to fill necessary positions in the coming generation. An upper-class redundant (the unneeded lesser son of a noble family) can move down a notch (fill some ranked position in the church, government, or military). A merchant’s second son might start a new business, become a craft apprentice, or descend to the less-protected ranks of labor (depending on the good graces of the inheriting son). But at the bottom of the underclass, there is really nowhere to go. Society keeps an underclass to fill breeches in the higher ranks caused by war, pestilence, or natural disaster; but it also tries to keep the underclass at some manageable level through those same disasters (in addition to famine).

As we move from a dispersed (hunter-gathering) to more condensed (agriculture-industry-information) societies, the underclass is joined by primitives, farmers, and industrial workers who are no longer required. Paying the landlords for cash-crops produces famine. Crowding primitives and agrarians into “reservations,” ghettos, and airless factories produces pestilence. War exhausts not only your own underclass, but might free lebensraum for your survivors (so you don’t have to invite them home, where they might menace your daughters). In the process, some of the underclass can be elevated (armies, police, prisons) to control the rest of the underclass.

Looking at other societies from the outside helps us to recognize the reprehensible nature of our own society

divendres, 27 de març de 2015

GREEK Expansion of the Nova SYRIZA Shell A quick measure of the positions of knots prominent in 1995 an d 2007 shows that the knots are expanding radially. A visual example of this is sho wn in Figure 3, where positions of the 1995 and 2007 images are presented with identical scal es, positioning (relative to T Pyx), and angular sizes. T Pyx itself is vertically lined up i n both panels, so that any radial expansion towards the right is readily seen in the misalignm ent of the knots. With this, the easily recognizable ‘constellation’ of bright knots sl ightly right of center is clearly seen to have a substantially and significantly larger radial dist ance in 2007 than in 1995. This demonstrates that the T Pyx shell is expanding. Also, as we lo ok from left to right, the positional differences become larger. This demonstrates th at the expansion of the shell is homologous, where the increase in radial distance is propor tional to the radial distance. Our conclusion (homologous expansion) can in principle be c ompromised by the selection of knots in the two images. There are three ways that this coul d happen. First, we could select knots from the 1995 image based on some biased idea of w here the knots should be, and the selected knots would then confirm the bias. Second, th e presence of many knots in the 1995 image might provide too many candidate knots for ass ignment with a knot in the 2007 image, which could cause a possibly large systematic er ror. Third, the knots are seen to vary in brightness, so a ‘Christmas tree light’ situation could result in a pairing of knots on images that are only neighbors. Fortunately, the density of knots is sufficiently low that these potential problems do not seem significant, and the dis tinction of the pattern of knots (i.e., their ‘constellations’) is clear, so only causal con nections between 2007 and 1995 are made T Pyxidis is the prototypical recurrent nova (RN), with five eruptions from 1890 to 1967 and a mysterious nova shell. We report new observ ations of the nova shell with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) in the year 2007, which provides a long time baseline to compare with HST images from 1994 and 1995. We find that the knots in the nova shell are expanding with velocities ran ging from roughly 500-715 km s − 1 , assuming a distance of 3,500 pc. The fractional expansion o f the knots is constant, which implies no significant deceleratio n of the knots, which must have been ejected by an eruption close to the year 1866. W e see knots that have turned on after 1995; this shows that the knots are power ed by shocks from the collision of the ‘1866’ ejecta with fast ejecta from late r RN eruptions. We derive that the ‘1866’ ejecta has a total mass of ∼ 10 − 4 . 5 M ⊙ , which with the low ejection velocity shows that the ‘1866’ event was an ordinar y nova eruption, not an RN eruption. This also implies that the accretion rate bef ore the ordinary nova event must have been low (around the 4 × 10 − 11 M ⊙ yr − 1 expected for gravitational radiation alone), and that the matter accumu lated on the surface of the white dwarf for ∼ 750,000 years. The current accretion rate ( > 10 − 8 M ⊙ yr − 1 ) is ∼ 1000 × higher than expected for a system below the period gap, with the plausible reason being that the ‘1866’ event started a co ntinuing supersoft source that drives the accretion. The accretion rate has bee n declining since before the 1890 eruption, with the current rate being only 3% of its earlier value. The decline in the observed accretion rate shows that the sup ersoft source is not self-sustaining; we calculate that the accretion in T Pyx wi ll effectively stop in upcoming decades. With this, T Pyx will enter a state of hiber nation lasting for an estimated 2,600,000 years before gravitational radiati on brings the system into contact again. Thus, T Pyx has an evolutionary cycle going from an ordinary CV state (lasting 750,000 years), to its current RN state (la sting little longer than a century), to a future hibernation state (lasting 2,60 0,000 million years), and then repeating this cycle Cataclysmic variables (CVs) with multiple nova outbursts i n a given century are known as recurrent novae (RNe). The dramatic outbursts are the pro duct of thermonuclear runaway in the accreted material on the surface of the white dwarf (WD ). The outburst mechanism is identical to that of classical novae (CNe), but the presence of a high-mass WD ( M W D & 1 . 3 M ⊙ ) and a high accretion rate lead to the short recurrence time s cale. With these required conditions, RNe are strong candidate Type Ia supernova prog enitors. Only ten RNe are known in our galaxy; the prototype RN is T Pyxidis. T Pyx was the first known RN, discovered by H. Leavitt in 1913 (P ickering 1913) when she found the 1902 eruption on the Harvard plates and searche d through older plates to find the 1890 eruption. Eruptions of T Pyx have been observed in 18 90, 1902, 1920, 1944, and 1967, giving an apparent recurrence time scale of approxima tely 20 years (Schaefer 2009). This time scale, however, predicts an eruption around 1987, which did not occur. The five eruptions have identical light curves, each with a peak magn itude of 6.4 in the visual and a t 3 of 62 days, where t 3 is the amount of time it takes for the brightness to decline by three magnitudes from peak (Schaefer 2009). The quiescent B-band magnitude of the system has fallen systematically from 13.8 mag before the 1890 eruptio n, to 15.5 mag in 2004 (Schaefer 2005), and now to 15.7 mag in 2009. The orbital period of T Pyx w as discovered to be below the period gap at 1.83 hours (Schaefer et al. 1992) with exten sive photometric (Patterson et al. 1998) and spectroscopic confirmation (Uthas 2009). Wi th this, it is surprising that all measures of the accretion rate (e.g., Patterson et al. 19 98; Selvelli et al. 2008) are at the very high value of > 10 − 8 M ⊙ yr − 1 . T Pyx is surrounded by a unique nova shell. This shell, with a r adius of ∼ 5 arc-second, was discovered by Duerbeck & Seitter (1979) using the ESO 3.6 m telescope. Williams (1982) used the CTIO 4m to image T Pyx in H α +[N II], and found the shell to be spectrally similar to planetary nebulae, and to have close to solar abundances. The obvious presumption was that the shell had been ejected during the 1967 eruption. Sha ra et al. (1989) compared images from 1980 and 1985 to find that the shell was apparently not expanding, and could certainly not have come from the 1967 eruption.The first scenario is where the knots expand without significant deceleration unt il they run into and coalesce with substantially slower ejecta from an earlier eruption. This case is plausible because the ejecta mass appears to be predominantly in the form of kno ts, and thus ejecta from a later eruption would be slowed down when one of the knots impa cted a knot from an earlier eruption. The second scenario is that the deceleration is ca used by relatively slow-moving gas ejected by the previous nova eruption. For example, the f ast moving knots from the 1967 eruption will fairly quickly catch up with (and be slowe d by) the slow-moving gas from the 1944 eruption. The third scenario has the ejecta being sl owed by interactions with the interstellar medium. This situation could apply to the ejec ta from a big eruption in the middle 1800s. It is possible that the ejection velocity from a nova event on a massive, cool white dwarf might be much larger than the current expansion v elocity of the knots (for the RN events), and thus there might be some deceleration, which could only come from the uniform ISM. Our first scenario with deceleration is that the outgoing kno ts are suddenly slowed down due to collisions with knots or sharp edged shells ejected in earlier eruptions. If the knot ejection happened during the last eruption (in 1967), then a small problem with this model is that the required initial velocity must be & 2700 km s − 1 for the radial distance to match the observations in 1995.8. This is not a significant problem , as either the distance to T Pyx could be smaller than the adopted value of 3,500 pc, or the initial expansion velocity could be somewhat larger than the Catchpole velocity.

OUTER HALO extending out to radius
∼10 arc-seconds. Contini & Prialnik (1997) presented a model
for
the T Pyx shell that successfully reproduces the spectral li
ne fluxes of the shell by shock
heating when the fast ejecta from one nova eruption run into t
he slower ejecta from an earlier
eruption.
Hubble Space Telescope
(
HST
) images from 1994 and 1995 revealed the shell to be
composed of over 2000 unresolved knots (Shara et al. 1997). M
ysteriously, the knots were
not
seen to be expanding radially, although the time baseline wa
s fairly short. The origin
and nature of the nova shell are essentially unknown, with ma
ny proposed possibilities.
T Pyx might be a well-observed system, but it still has many my
steries. First, why
didn’t it erupt around the year 1987, as appropriate for its p
rior recurrence time scale?
Second, its orbital period places it below the period gap and
hence it ‘should’ have a low
accretion rate driven by gravitational radiation loss, so w
hy is its observed accretion rate
over a thousand times higher? Third, why is the nova shell so u
nlike almost all other nova
shells, being composed of a myriad of small knots? Fourth, wh
y is this shell seen to be
not
expanding? Fifth, why has T Pyx been suffering a unique secula
r decline in quiescent
brightness by 1.9 magnitudes over the last 120 years? Sixth,
will T Pyx ultimately become
a supernova?
 hree Models With Deceleration
As the knots expand, they can run into slower gas, with this co
ming from either the
interstellar medium or from prior eruptions. As a knot moves
through this slower gas, it will
act as a snowplow and gain in mass. As the individual atoms int
eract with the knots, they
will rapidly be thermalized and become part of the knot, whil
e collectively a shock will be
sent through the knot. The combined specific momentum (for th
e knot plus the swept-up
gas) will decrease, so the knot will slow down. This decelera
tion can be observed in the
knot’s expansion from the central star.
The possibility of deceleration is suggested by three point
s. First, the observed expan-
sion velocity (based on the motion of the knots) is
600 km s
1
for the years 1995-2007,
whereas the observed expansion velocity (based on the HWHM o
f spectral lines from the last
eruption) is
2000 km s
1
in 1967. The stark difference between these velocities impli
es a
deceleration,
if
the two velocities are referring to the same gas. Second,
if
the knots come
from the 1967 eruption, then they would have to expand with a velocity of near
∼2000 kms−1
to get out to their current radial position, yet they are now expanding with a velocity
of∼600 km s−1
and this implies that there must be a deceleration. Third, there must be
some amount of gas being swept-up by the expanding knots, and
this can only decelerate
the knots to some extent.
We have constructed a kinematic model of this deceleration.
The primary equation for
our model is simply the conservation of momentum as the knots
sweep up slower moving
material. The velocity of the swept-up gas will depend on the
scenario, where gas from the
interstellar medium is assumed to have zero velocity with respect to the central star, while
material from a prior eruption is taken to have a velocity cor
responding to the time since the
prior eruption and the radial distance from the central star
. The density of the swept up gas
will also depend on the scenario, with the interstellar medi
um assumed to have a constant
density. The density of the gas from a prior eruption will dep
end on the velocity distribution
of the prior ejecta, and we have adopted a uniform distributi
on between some minimum and
maximum velocities (Vmin and Vmax). If the velocity range is narrow then the knots will
suddenly run into a shell, while if the velocity range is wide
then the knots will be steadily
plowing through an expanding medium. The density of the prior ejecta will be falling off as
the inverse-square of the radial distance. The knots themselves are taken to have some cross
section (which can either be constant or increase by simple radial motion) for sweeping up
material and some mass (which increases as material is swept
up). With this, it is simple
to construct a kinematical model that derives the radial dis
tance and velocity of each knot.
For some scenarios this can be solved analytically, while for other scenarios we have resorted
to numerical integration

Methane can be produced in an abiological way by serpentinisation of the basalt Basalt are present in the subsurface probably along with water The massive production of basalts must be counteracted by crustal consumption Serpentinisation is not quite efficient in producing methane but the long Martian history allows the formation of huge amount of gasMud Volcanoes on Mars Aug 19, 2010 by Anuradha K. Herath Mud Volcanoes on Mars The mounds shown here, located in the Southern Acidalia Planitia, range in size between 20 and 500 meters in diameter. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona Spewing out material from deep underground, geological structures on Mars thought to be mud volcanoes could give scientists the clues they need to determine if life exists, or ever existed, on the Red Planet. : http://phys.org/news201452152.html Seasonal – on and off? 60‐120 days during summer – Temperature control => near surface – below limit of diurnal temperature varia9ons, but above the seasonal temperature fluctua9on. – If clathrate ‐ must be capped by a few meters regolith with equivalent lithosta9c pressure of 2 to 15 meters. – If deeper then requires fluid seeps with icy caps? • Spa9ally localized – – Noachian age crust => ancient clathrate reservoir, not globally distributed near the surface now – Structural control, aka. Fractures or seeps => deep methane source – Mineralogical control => mineral/water interaction providing H2 source and perhaps carbonate.

Spewing out material from deep underground, geological structures on Mars thought to be mud volcanoes could give scientists the clues they need to determine if life exists, or ever existed, on the Red Planet. 
TALES DE MILETO ....TUDO É COMPOSTO DE ÁGUA 

ANAXIMENES O AR É O PRINCÍPIO FUNDAMENTAL GREGO....

DEMOKRITOS CORPOS POLÍTICOS NÃO SÃO MACIÇOS SENÃO NA APARÊNCIA

NA REALIDADE SÃO COMPOSTOS DE ÍNFIMAS PARTÍCULAS DA GAMA ATÓMICA

A TOMOS NUM DIVISIBLE 

1647 PIERRE GASSENDI RETOMA I-DEI-A DEMOKRITALES 

MOLÉCULAS DO GREGO MOLES...MASSA ...PEQUENAS MASSAS

The H2O2 abundance and its spatial distribution, which exhibits a maximum in the morning side, around the sub-solar latitude, are this time in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions, and, in particular, with the 3D simulations performed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique. The amount of H2O2 inferred from the observations is also in good agreement with the global measurement, integrated over the Martian disk, achieved in the submillimeter range, in September 2003, by a team from the Space Science Institute in Boulder (Clancy et al., 2004). The nature of the seasonal cycle of H2O2 and its relation with the water cycle remain to be understoodSince the negative results announced by the Viking experiments regarding the search for organic molecules at the Martian surface, astronomers have always suspected the presence of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 in the Martian atmosphere. This strong oxidizer, product of the photochemistry of water and carbon dioxide, would be able to sterilize the Martian surface down to a depth of a few meters. Still, until last summer, all attempts to detect H2O2 on Mars have been unsuccessful. Because of its very weak expected amount, the search for H2O2 requires high-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared or submillimeter range, which can be achieved only from the ground, using large telescopes. In February 2001, a team from Paris Observatory, using a high-resolution imaging spectrometer in the 8 microns range, built by the University of Texas and mounted at the 3-m IRTF (InfraRed Telescope Facility) at Mauna Kea (Hawaii), had obtained a stringent upper limit of the H2O2 abundance, lower than the photochemical predictions MARTE TEM SUBSTÂNCIAS POTENCIALMENTE BIOCIDAS NOMEADAMENTE PERÓXIDOS ...AS ÁREAS DE ATERRAGEM CONTINUAM MUITO LIMITADAS MARS BY MOONLIGHT IN TERMINATOR A PARTE OBSCURA DO EQUADOR MARCIANO DESCE AOS MINUS 40ºC E A PARTE ILUMINATA SOBE GRADUALMENTE ATÉ AOS 7ºC CERCA DE 1 HORA E 30 APÓS O MEIO-DIA SOLAR TURISMO EM MARTE CAMPOS DE DUNAS NO FUNDO DE UMA CRATERA DE 150 KM DE DIÂMETRO 128 X 64 KM2 DE DUNAS PARA EXPLORAR PELO TURISTA NO HELLESPONTUS NIX OLYMPICA O MAIOR ESCUDO VULCÂNICO DO SISTEMA SOLAR 600 KM DE DIÂMETRO NUM PLANALTO A 11 KM DE ALTITUDE SOBREELEVA-SE OUTROS 10 KM CRATERA REDUZIDA DE APENAS 65 KM DE DIÂMETRO ESTRUTURA DE COLAPSO? O MAIOR ESCUDO VULCÂNICO TERRESTRE TEM APENAS 200 KM DE DIÂMETRO ...O MAUNA LOA E SÓ SE ELEVA 9 KM SOBRE O FUNDO OCEÂNICO NO FUNDO NO FUNDO ....Methane and the Martian Habitability (solicited) Atreya, S. A NEVER ENDING STORY ATREYU...ATREYA Production on Mars by photolysis of H2O in the presence of CO (solicited) Bar-Nun, A. PDF 17:40-18:00 Methanogenesis in Terrestrial Permafrost: a Model for Methane Sources on Mars? (solicited) Wagner, D. · Cancelled Methane Sources and Sinks: The geobiology of the Arctic versus Mars (solicited) Onstott, T.

REGÓLITO MARCIANO AOS MONTES

(MILHÕES DE GIGATONELADAS DE 

MATERIAL FRAGMENTADO QUE JAZ

SOBRE A ROCHA CONSOLIDADA 

DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DESCONHECIDAS

MUITO MATERIAL PARA PENEIRAR 

PODEM-SE UTILIZAR CORRENTES DE 

AR DA ATMOSFERA MARCIANA 

QUE DIZEM SER TORNADÉLICA 

PARA PENEIRAR OS MINÉRIOS 

JÁ QUE ÁGUA DEVE SER ESCASSA....

dijous, 26 de març de 2015

Tradicionalmente , o sector dos tabacos É exclusivo da Coroa , que o geria directamente , ou , como sucedia mais frequentemente , o arrendava a particulares . Estes arrendamentos tiveram sempre numerosos pretenden - tes , um a ve z qu e o s tabaco s representava m u m do s mai s seguro s meio s d e acumula r fortun a e m Portugal . Co m o contrat o n a mão , o s «caixas » d o tabaco , designaçã o po r qu e era m conhecido s o s arrematantes , sabia m qu e podia m dormi r descansados , se m qu e a s lei s d o mercad o o s arruinasse m d o di a par a a noite . O qu e estav a e m causa , quand o s e arrendav a o monopólio , er a saber-s e quem , d e mão s dada s co m o Estado , i a acumula r o s lucro s retirado s d o fumo . Nã o causa , assim , surpres a qu e tanta s e tã o feroze s batalha s s e tenha m tra - vad o à su a volta . Com o Jos é Estêvã o lembrava , rar a er a « a grand e fortun a qu e n o paí s s e te m feit o qu e nã o tivess e tid o part e n o Contrat o d o Tabaco». N o relatóri o d a propost a d e le i apresentad a à s corte s e m 1853 , Fonte s Pereir a d e Mel o exprimi a sentimento s semelhantes : « A existênci a d e u m contrat o poderoso , qu e dispõ e d e muito s recurso s e d e muito s indivíduos , e m u m paí s co m a s condiçõe s d o nosso , ond e nã o existe m ne m a s grande s fortuna s d e banco , ne m o s grande s estabelecimento s industriais , qu e e m outro s paíse s neutraliza m a influênci a un s do s outros , parec e a algun s espírito s um a espé - ci e d e status in statu, qu e nã o dev e subsisti r po r mai s tempo 4 . » Nã o er a apena s a riquez a do s contratadores qu e o s tornav a odiado s ao s olhos da população . Os seus extensos privilégios , que iam da isenção do serviço militar à possibilidad e d e multar qualquer CITOYEN OS AGENTES (FISCAIS DO CONTRATO) EM 1865 TÊM O DIREITO DE CHIBATEAR E POR EM DEVASSA AS CASAS DE CONTRABANDISTAS DE TABACOI OU DE SUSPEITOS DE O SEREM E POR PROCESSO POR 30 OU 40 ARRÁTEIS DE TABACO SUSPEITO SE EU PUDESSE, OS DO CONTRATO /ENVENENAR, MANDARIA / OBRIGANDO-OS A FUMAR / VINTE CIGARROS AO DIA Negócios e MONOPÓLIOS POLÍTICOS OS CONTRATOS DOS TABACOS política : os tabacos (1800-1890


OPERÁRIAS - 120 RÉIS CHARUTOS 60

OPERÁRIOS - 160 RÉIS  CHARUTOS 65 

1 QUILO DE TABACO ORDINÁRIO PARA FABRICAR 1440 CIGARROS 

OPERÁRIOS NÃO PODEM FALAR

CHIBATEAR OS QUE FALAREM 

MOÇOS POSTOS POR ALTURA

IDAS À CASA DE BANHO AUTORIZADAS 4

PROLETARII AS RAÇAS QUE EVOLUEM EM ECOSSISTEMAS OU NICHOS ECOLÓGICOS FECHADOS SEJAM GALINHAS POEDEIRAS OU ROMANOS URBANOS NÃO TÊM PLASTICIDADE PARA SE ADAPTAREM A MUDANÇAS BRUSCAS SÃO RAÇAS ARTIFICIAIS PERFEITAS MONSTRUOSIDADES DA GAMA... INCAPAZES DE SOBREVIVER NO MUNDO NATURAL....PRODUTORES DE FILHOS DE PROLE ....O PRIMEIRO VALOR ROMANO É A PECUNIA $ E O PECUS O GADO....TODOS OS QUE PAGAVAM IMPOSTOS OU VERTIAM SANGUE PELO ESTADO...POR ROMA QUEM NADA POSSUI NÃO PODE PROCRIAR NÃO PHODE TEM DE SE CONTRIBUIR PARA A GUERRA CONSOANTE A TERRA QUE SE POSSUI E SE QUER DEFENDER COMO NEM TODAS AS GUERRAS TERMINAVAM MUY BEM PARA O SPQR O PROPRIETÁRIO NEM SEMPRE ERA RESSARCIDO DAS PERDAS AS FAMÍLIAS NÃO ESTAVAM INCLUIDAS EM NENHUMA DAS CLASSES HAVIA VALERIUS PATRÍCIOS SENADORES QUESTORES ETC ....E VALERIUS PLEBEUS ROMA Vê desaparecer a classe dos eqüestres, atenuadora dos conflitos sociais, que com sua ausência eclodem com grande violência. Os animais selvagens espalhados pela Itália têm, cada um, seu buraco, seu antro, seu covil; e aqueles que combatem e morrem pela Itália só têm o ar e luz: nada mais. Sem casa , sem moradia fixa, perambula com suas mulheres e filhos. Os generais mentem quando, nas batalhas, contratam os soldados para combater os inimigos pela defesa dos túmulos e dos templos: dentre tantos romanos, não há um só que possua altar paterno, um túmulo de antepassados. Fazem a guerra e morrem unicamente pelo luxo e a opulência de outrem: nós os chamados de senhores do mundo, mas eles não possuem sequer um torrão de terra". Este texto de Plutarco (Vida de Tibério Graco)

ROMANOS CHAMAVAM AOS ETRUSCOS

GORDOS E FARTOS 

INICIALMENTE AS TÉCNICAS DE FABRICO 

DE PÃO E OS ROMANOS COMIAM PAPAS 

DE GRÃOS ESMAGADOS 

LÍGURES POVOS NÃO INDO-EUROPEUS 

ÓDIO DOS ARISTOCRATAS À MONARQUIA 

NÃO POR ASPIRAREM MAIOR LIBERDADE

MAS SIM PARA OBTEREM O APARELHO DE 

ESTADO E PODEREM ENRIQUECER 

À VONTADE À CUSTA DAS 

CLASSES INFERIORES

A luta patrícios e plebeus não constitui apenas o motor histórico da instauração da República, mas foi também fundamental para o estabelecimento do primeiro código escrito romano - a Lei das XII tábuas -, verdadeiro instrumento de combate contra a arbitrariedade dos pontífices patrícios. 

OS POVOS CONFEDERADOS DESFRUTAM

DO JUS COMERCII FACULDADE DE 

CONCLUIR ASSENTOS DE DIREITO PRIVADOS 

JUS PROVOCACIONIS DIREITO DE APELAR

CONTRA INJUSTIÇAS DOS MAGISTRADOS 

  JUS CONUBII. 1: connubium 2 . 2: the body of rules and conventions of a people or community governing intermarriag

THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. NARRATIVE-VOL. I. FIRST PART. REPORT ON THE SCIENTIFIC RESULTS OF THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER DURING THE YEARS i 8 7 3-7 6 UNDER THE COMMAND OF On the 3rd March 1840, a sounding of 2677 fathoms was made in lat. 33° 21' S. and long. 9° E., 450 miles west of the Cape of Good Hope. Water of ecpial depth was frequently sounded during the cruise, and on two occasions at least no bottom could be found with over 4000 fathoms of line. The temperature of the water was observed very frequently at all depths down to 2000 fathoms, and its density at the surface and at various depths was determined almost daily. These observations were very valuable at the time, as giving the first real clue to the distribution of temperature at the bottom of the sea ; but both in this expedi- tion and in those of Wilkes and D'Urville, the thermometers were not properly protected against pressure, and consequently it came to be generally believed that in all open seas the water below a certain depth maintained a uniform temperature of 39° F. right down to the bottom. Ross lays special emphasis on the fact mentioned by earlier observers that the surface temperature of the water falls rapidly as the depth of the sea diminishes ; he cites one instance when in a single day the temperature at the surface fell from 70° F. where the depth was 400 fathoms, to 51°'5 where it was only 48 fathoms, 3 a fact now known to be of local but not of universal occurrence. The dredgings, which were taken occasionally, turned out to be one of the most valuable parts of the scientific work of the expedition. On the 21st April 1840, a haul of the dredge was taken in 95 fathoms of water, and it came up full of coral. On the 18th January 1841, when in lat. 72° 57' S. and long. 176° 6' E., a Pycnogonid {Nymphon gracile) was found attached to the lead, after a sounding in 230 fathoms. Next da}-, when the depth was 270 fathoms, a dredge was put over, and when hauled up was found to be nearly full ; it contained a block of granite, a number of small stones, some beautiful specimens of living corals, and, to quote Captain Ross's own words : — " Corallines,! Flustrse, and a variety of marine invertebrate animals, also came up in the net, showing an abundance and great variety of animal life. Amongst them I detected two species of Pycnogonum, Idotea baffini, hitherto considered peculiar to the Arctic Seas, a Chiton, seven or eight bivalves and univalves, an unknown species of Gammarus, and two kinds of Serpula adhering to the pebbles and shells." 2 On January 20th, 1841, the deep-sea clamm brought up stiff green mud containing corals and fragments of Starfish from a depth of 320 fathoms. Two days later the dredge was put over and allowed to trail along the bottom for two. or three hours in 300 fathoms, and its contents included " many animals, some Corallines, and a quantity of sand, mud, and small stones." 3 Ross's deepest dredging was made at 10 a.m. on the 11th August 1841, in lat, 33° 32' S., long. 167° 40' E., when the dredge was let go in 400 fathoms; after being dragged along the ground for half an hour, it was hauled on deck, and found to contain " some beautiful specimens of Coral, Corallines, Flustrse, and a few Crustaceous animals." The reflections of the accomplished leader of the expedition are extremely significant. So completely had Ross's researches faded from memory, that twenty years after they were made, the fact of living creatures being found under 400 fathoms of water was hailed as a great discovery. Yet Ross, referring to his dredgings in 1841, says : — " It was interesting amongst these creatures to recognise several that I had been in the habit of taking in equally high northern latitudes ; and although contrary to the general belief of naturalists, I have no doubt that from however great a depth we may be able to bring up the mud and stones of the bed of the ocean, we shall find them teeming with animal life ; the extreme pressure at the greatest depth does not appear to affect these creatures ; hitherto we have not been able to determine this point beyond a thousand fathoms, but from that depth several shellfish have been brought up with the mud." 1 From the fact that the same species were to be found at both poles, and that these animals are very sensitive to a change of temperature, he suggested that it would be possible for them to pass from one frigid, zone to another, provided the temperature of the intervening sea bottom had a range not exceeding 5° F. Ross's observations con- firmed his idea that the temperature at the bottom of the open sea was uniform in all latitudes, and subsequent investigations prove it, generally speaking, to be correct. Sir James Ross was an indefatigable zoological collector, but it is to be regretted that his large collections of deep-sea animals, which he retained in his own possession 1 Most proliably Polyzoa ate bete referred to. — J.M. 2 Antarctic Voyage, vol. i. p. 202. • Ibid., p. 2(>7. 4 Ihiil, pp. 202, 203. NARRATIVE OF THE CRUISE. xliii after the return of the expedition, were found to be totally destroyed at the time of his death. Had these been carefully described during the cruise or on the return of the expedition to England, the gain to science would have been immense, for not only would many new species and genera have been discovered, but the facts would have been recorded in the journals usually consulted by zoologists, instead of being lost sight of as was the case. A large number of zoological drawings made by Sir Joseph Hooker during the Antarctic cruise were recently handed to the various naturalists engaged in working up the Challenger collections, and these show that some of the Challenger discoveries had been anticipated by Ross. Sir Joseph Hooker, whose botanical re- searches are so well known, recorded the existence of immense numbers of Diatoms on the surface of the Antarctic Ocean, and pointed out that the mud at the bottom, as obtained in Ross's dredgings, consisted of their dead remains. 1 AVhen Sir John Franklin's ill-fated Polar expedition set out in 1845, Mr. Harry Goodsir, a young zoologist of great promise, sailed on board the " Erebus " as assistant surgeon and naturalist. The expedition never returned, and only fragmentary records are preserved of the valuable work which Goodsir had already accomplished. " On the 28th June a dredge was sunk to the enormous depth of 300 fathoms, and produced many highly interesting species of Mollusca, Crustacea, Asteriadse, Spatangi, and Corallines ; such as jFhsus, Turritella, Venus, Dentalium, &c, and also some large forms of Isopoda. As bearing upon the geographical distribution of species, Mr. Goodsir considers the occurrence of Brissus lyrifev (Forbes) and Alauna rostrata (Goodsir) as of the greatest interest, both of them being natives of the Scottish seas. The remarkable depth also appears to us to give peculiar interest to these researches, as we believe that the deepest dredgings ever previously obtained were those of Professor E. Forbes in the Levant, the deepest of which was 230 fathoms, itself far beyond any made by other naturalists." 2 Up to this time all the deep dredgings had been made during Polar expeditions, though not necessarily in Polar regions ; the reason being that the time and trouble of working a dredge in deep water were too great to make it feasible except on scientific expeditions, and the only scientific expeditions of those days were despatched toward the poles. In 1840, however, Captain Spratt, R.N., dredged in 310 fathoms, 40 miles to the east of Malta, and found abundance of animal life, including eight distinct species of Mollusca. 3 During this period of rapid advance in marine zoology, the problems of ocean physics and meteorology were not lost sight of. Rennel had been collecting particulars of the currents, prevailing winds, and general meteorology of the ocean from 1810 to 1830, and his Investigation of Currents, &c, is still a valuable book of reference. Maury also collected facts of all kinds bearing on these matters between the years 1848 and 1 Flora Antarctica, vol. ii. p. 503, London, 1847. 2 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 1, vol. xvi. p. 163, 1845. • Spratt, On the Influence of Temperature upon the Distribution of the Fauna in th<; JSgMtn Sea, Br**. Assoc. Report, Communications, p. 81, 1848. xliv THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 1858, and published his famous Sailing Directions embodying these statistics. One important result of Maury's exertions was the maritime conference held in Brussels in 1853, which resulted in international observations being taken on many naval and mercantile ships, thus obtaining several of the advantages of scientific expeditions at very little expense. Captain GEORGE S. NARES, R.N., F.R.S. AND THE LATE Captain FRANK TOURLE THOMSON, R.N.

What can now be advanced to support the idea that this peridotite belongs to the schisto-crystalline 
series ? We have stated that a great number of peridotites belong to the schisto-crystalline series, 
and that in respect of their mode of origin they cannot be separated from the rocks with which 
they are associated. In the peridotite of St. Paul's Rocks the banded structure, the position assumed 
by the crystals in the mass, their form, in short, all the peculiarities above-mentioned, are character- 
istically those of the schists. On the supposition that the rock belongs to the schists, we must 
suppose an upheaval of the earth's crust to have taken place. The beds, of more or less considerable 
thickness, which formed, on this supposition, the entire mass in which the peridotite was encased, 
must have risen above the water, and then being attacked by the erosive action of the waves, the 
outer portions which covered the peridotites have been disintegrated and removed, leaving behind 
them as a fragment of the primitive mass what we now see as St. Paul's Rocks. It may 
thus be supposed that, at the point now occupied by these rocks, there formerly rose a mass of ancieut 
rocks, the dimensions of which may have been successively diminished by mechanical and chemical 
phenomena. Such an interpretation of the history of the locality is opposed neither to the nature 
of the rocks, nor to the details, still very incomplete, of their geological structure and relations. It is 
scarcely necessary to add that the opinion which tends to see in St. Paul's Rocks an outcrop 
of ancient strata, is not antagonistic to that which assigns to the oceanic basins a constancy 
in the general disposition, maintained during long geological ages. In regard to the possibility 
of the existence of a continental mass in the Atlantic at periods not very remote from our own, 
with which St. Paul's Rocks might be supposed to have been connected, it must be confessed 
that soundings have shown no trace of it, and that St. Paul's Rocks afford no proof of subsi- 
dence. There are no sedimentary formations, either fresh water or marine, to point to a greater 
extent of land surfaces in former geological ages." 

Professor A. Geikie have expressed opinions in favour of 
the probable volcanic origin of St. Paul's Rocks. To Mr. Wadswortli's criticism on his 
petrographical determinations, Professor  has already replied. 8

St. Paul's Eocks to Fernando NoRonha. 

On the 29th August, at 7 A.M., the ship cast off from St. Paul's Eocks and pro- 
ceeded round the islets to obtain soundings, leaving an officer on shore to take the 
bearing of the ship and masthead angle at each cast of the lead, the only method of 
fixing the correct position of the soundings. Whilst so employed observations were 
obtained on board with the dipping needle, and in the afternoon the ship was swung by 
azimuths of the sun to ascertain the deviation. At 3 p.m. the officer on the islet 
was recalled, and at 6 p.m. sail was made for Fernando Noronha. 
In the Family Molgulidae, 
beyond the two gigantic pedunculated forms, 
destitute both of hair-like processes from the 
test and incrusting sand, which have been placed 
in the new genus Ascopera, no very striking novelties were discovered. In the 
Ascidiidse, however, there are three noteworthy new genera — 
Corynascidia, Abyssascidia, and Hypobythius, all from deep 
water. Of the last, one species, Hypobythius calycodes, 
was described by Mr. Moseley, 1 and a second, Hypo- 
bythius moseleyi, agreeing with the first in the simple struc- 
ture of the branchial sac, but differing in the body form and 
some other details, was afterwards found in the collection. 
Corynascidia suhmi (see fig. 68) is, like so many other of the 
abyssal forms, supported upon a peduncle. The position and 
course of the intestine are peculiar, 2 and the branchial sac is one 
of the most beautiful and delicate known. The third genus, 
Abyssascidia, is a connecting link between the well-known 
genera Ascidia and Corella. It resembles the latter genus in 
the position and especially in the course of the intestine, while 
in the structure of the branchial sac it differs greatly from 
Corella, and exhibits the simpler arrangement found in Ascidia, 
from which again it differs in the condition of the dorsal lamina, 
and in the large number of lobes surrounding the branchial and 
atrial apertures. 

" A little group of three species, for which the new genus 
Ecteinascidia has been founded, forms a connecting link be- 
tween the previously known Clavelinidse and the Ascidiidse, 
and shows that the group of Social Ascidians, established in 
1828 by Milne-Edwards, must now be merged in the Ascidise 
Simplices. 

"The geographical distribution of the Simple Ascidians 
is very wide, but it appears from the Challenger investiga- 
tions that they are not abundant in the northern hemi- 
sphere, and are comparatively scarce in tropical latitudes, 
while they attain 'their greatest numerical development in 
southern temperate regions. On the 28th March, at Station 27, 
a boat, anchored by the lead line with the sinkers 
on the bottom, found the surface current running N.W. half a mile per hour, agreeing in 
direction though not in rate with the current determined by the ship's reckoning. On 
the 2nd April, at Station 30a, the current drag showed that the water, to the depth of 
100 fathoms, was moving in the same direction and with the same velocity as that at 
the surface. From 100 to 300 fathoms the velocity decreased, until at the latter depth 
there was no perceptible current. 

The deposits at the depths of 625 and 390 fathoms on the plateau to the north 
of the Virgin Islands were Pteropod oozes, with 69 and 73 per cent, of carbonate 
of lime, containing a few small mineral particles and some argillaceous matter. 
The deposits from depths greater than 2700 fathoms contained only 4 or 5 per cent, 
of carbonate of lime, which consisted of a few broken shells of pelagic Foraminifera, 
and was mostly confined to the surface layers. A few inches beneath the surface 
the deposit showed only a very slight sign of effervescence when treated with weak 
acid. At 2700 fathoms there was 22 per cent, of carbonate of lime, at 2600 fathoms 
29 per cent., and at 2475 fathoms 54 per cent. The deposits immediately surround- 
ing the island of Bermuda in some instances contained as much as 93 per cent, of 
carbonate of lime, the percentage being greater the nearer the reef and the less the 
depth. The mineral particles in all the deposits in this section were exceedingly 
minute, rarely exceeding 0'07 mm. in diameter, and consisting of fragments of pumice, 
felspars, magnetite, and augite. 

The dredgings in depths less than 500 fathoms, north of St. Thomas and arouud the 
island of Bermuda, yielded a large number of interesting animals ; but the deep water 
dredgings were singularly unproductive, only a few Foraminifera and a few shrimps 
being obtained. 

Floating masses of Gulf Weed were frequently met with, and were usually 
visited in boats while the ship was engaged in sounding and dredging. Besides the 
ordinary Sargassum baccifencm, isolated specimens of another weed, Fucus vesi- 
culosus, were occasionally picked up. The following is a complete list of the 



136 THE VOYAGE OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER. 

animals that have been collected on the Gulf Weed, compiled chiefly from the 
Challenger collections : — 

Plumularia obliqua, Aglaophenia latecarinata, 1 Desmoscyphus pumilus. 1 

Stylochus mertensi, Stylochus pellucidus. Sjnrorbis sp. 

Pontia atlantica. Lepas anserifera, Lepas pectinata, Lepas anatifera, Conchoderma 
rirgatum. Amphithoe pelagica, Vibilia pelagica, an Amphipod of the family Hyper- 
idse. Idotea metcdlica, Idotea whymperi, Bopyrus squillarum, Bopyroides latreuticola. 
Siriella sp. Sergestes oculatus, Tozeuma stimpsoni, Palcemori pelasgicus, Palwmon fucorum, 
Leander tenuicornis, Hippolyte tenuii'ostris, Hippolyte ensiferus, Virbius acuminatus, 
Alpheus sp., Caridina sargopce. Lupea sp., Nautilograpsus minutus, Neptunus sayi. 

Patina tella, Patina pellucida, Lepeta caeca, Ianthina rotundata, Litiopa melanos- 
toma. Phylliroe atlantica, Scyllcea pelagica, Scyllaa pelagica, var. marginata, sEoli- 
della occidentalis, Spurilla sargassicola, Fiona marina, Cuthona pumilio, Glaucus 
atlanticus, Doto pygmcea. Creseis spinifera. Onychia caribcea. 

Membvanipora tuberculata, Flustra membranacea, Flustra tuberculata, Flustra 
peregrina. 

Antennarius marmoratus, Dactylopteris volitans, Syngnathus pelagicus. 

The nest of Antennarius, an ally of the common Angler of British seas, though 
very unlike it in its habits, was frequently procured ; it is composed of bunches of 
the Gulf Weed bound together by means of long sticky gelatinous strings formed by 
the fish for this purpose, and is filled with eggs. 

The Gulf Weed fauna, as is well known to naturalists, is a peculiar one, and presents 
many remarkable instances of protective resemblance. The Crustacea, Molluscs, and Fish 
are all bright yellow or orange in colour with white spots, thus imitating very perfectly 
the Gulf Weed with the white patches of Membranipora and Cirripeds. A similar fauna, 
comprising species of some of the same genera (e.g. Antennarius), inhabits the floating 
weed in the Pacific Ocean. Oscillatorise were very abundant on the surface throughout 
this trip, and at times were sufficient to discolour the water for several miles. 

On the 3rd April the Bermudas were sighted at 2 p.m., and that day and the 
greater part of the 4th were occupied in obtaining soundings and dredgings off the 
group. In the afternoon of the 4th, the ship proceeded to the anchorage in Grassy Bay. 

Bermuda. 

At, and in the neighbourhood of, this interesting group of islands, the Challenger 
remained from the 4th to the 23rd April, and from the 28th May to the 13th June. 
The group, with its outlying reefs, is in the formof an ellipse, the major axis of which 

1 Professor Allman says that these two species are destitute of gonosomes, a fact probably connected with the float- 
ing habit of the plant, which is itself never provided with reproductive organs in the Sargasso Sea. 



NARRATIVE OF THE CRUISE. 



137 



lies in a N.E and S.W. direction, and it is described generally as a coral atoll ; but any 
one who has visited coral atolls in the China Sea, Pacific, or Indian Oceans, will be at once 
struck with some remarkable differences between these and Bermuda. The typical atoll 
consists of a low, more or less circular, strip of land enclosing a lagoon, into which there 
is usually a well-defined opening on the leeward side. In Bermuda the land is 260 
feet in height at one point, and is massed to the southeast side of the atoll, with the 
exception of a small outlier known as the " North Rock " (see Sheet 8), which is 
composed of the same " iEolian " rocks as the mass of land to the southeast, and this 







/Eoliau " Rocks, Bermuda. 



indicates an extension of the land surface of the atoll in this direction at a former period. 
Although the outer reef is almost continuous, there is no well-defined lagoon as in a 
typical atoll. The whole of the northwest portion of the banks is crowded with coral 
flats and heads, with intervening lanes and spaces of coral sand, with a depth of usually 
4 or 5 fathoms and nowhere more than 10 fathoms. The basins, known as 
Great Sound, Little Sound, and Castle Harbour, are almost completely enclosed by 
the iEolian rocks, and have evidently been formed by the solvent action of the 
sea water on these rocks. Navigators have remarked upon the light blue colour of 
the water when compared with the deep blue of southern atolls. This arises most 
(narr. chall. exp. — vol. i. — 1884.) 18Professor Tait's experiments with the new apparatus have led to several curious 
results which, though not directly bearing on the pressure errors of the thermometers, 
may be found of importance in other departments of the Challenger work. He has, for 
instance, investigated the compressibility of fresh and salt water at different temperatures 
under great pressures, and has shown that the maximum density point of fresh water is 
lowered by pressure. Various additional questions of this kind, directly connected with 
the great problem of ocean circulation, are now being investigated by means of the new 
pressure apparatus — and a verification of the unit of his gauge was obtained in the 
autumn of 1882, by sinking a number of his gauges, whose behaviour in the pressure 
apparatus had been previously ascertained, to depths of 800 and 1300 fathoms from 
H.M.S. " Triton," which made a special cruise for this and other connected purposes. 

Piezometers. — In the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and many of the seas of the Eastern 
Archipelago, besides, possibly, large tracts both of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the 
temperature decreases regularly down to a certain depth, which varies in different 
seas, and at all greater depths the protected Six thermometer gives identical readings, 
indicating that the water is either at the same temperature or some higher one. In the 
neighbourhood of ice, layers of water are frequently met with at various depths whose 
temperature, being higher than that of the surface, is indicated by the maximum index of 
the protected Six thermometer. Besides these layers there may be, and there probably 
are, others whose temperature is higher than that of the water immediately above them 
without reaching that of the surface, and their temperature would remain unrecorded. 

This fact was brought prominently under the notice of the members of the Expedition 
during the cruise in Antarctic waters, where a large stratum of water was found at depths 
exceeding 300 and 500 fathoms from the surface, the temperature of which could not be 
ascertained by any instrument on board, and had to be reported as uncertain. 

In order to prevent the recurrence of such an experience, the matter was carefully 
investigated by the chemist of the Expedition, who devised and constructed an instrument 
suitable for determining the temperature of water arranged as it was in the Antarctic 
Ocean. Before leaving home he had had constructed several piezometers filled with 
water or saline solutions, with a view of determining the compressibility of these liquids 



NARRATIVE OF THE CRUISE. 103 

when sunk to different depths (or conversely of determining the depth by the amount of 
compression). These piezometers are really nothing more than Six's thermometers open 
at the end. If such an instrument be sunk to any depth in the sea it will register the 
combined effect of temperature and pressure on its contents and the glass envelope. If 
the temperature be known the contraction due to pressure can be computed, and conversely, 
if the depth and so the pressure be known, the temperature to which it has been exposed 
can be computed. It occurred to Mr. Buchanan at the time to use the piezometers for 
this purpose, but as they were all filled with either water, sea water, or salt solution, 
liquids which at such low temperatures show hardly any thermal dilatability, it was 
felt that no assistance could be got from them. It was not until much later that the 
idea occurred to open the end of an unprotected Six's thermometer, or to open the end 
and the secondary bulb of a protected one, and so obtain a record of the combined effect 
of pressure and temperature on the thermometric liquid usually employed, which could 
be cleared for effect of pressure by subsequent experiment. Several trials were made 
with an opened unprotected thermometer in the South Atlantic on the voyage between 
Sandy Point and Monte Video, and it was found to work well. 

As the working of the Negretti & Zambra thermometers which were sent out was 
not considered satisfactory, a piezometer filled with mercury was constructed. It 
resembled an inverted Six's thermometer, the bulb filled with mercury and the bend of 
the tube filled with water, in which the magnetic index had free play. The bulb 
A (see fig. 33), of about 19 c.c. capacity, held about 250 grammes of mercury. The 
stem, through a considerable portion of its length BC, was filled with water, in 
which the index moved. The space between the end of the water column and the end 
of the stem was filled with mercury, and the end dipped into the bulb D filled with 
mercury, which communicated with the water or air outside. The instrument was fixed 
to a backing of vulcanite, principally by wire lashing across the bulb ; the small brass 
clamps on the stem were there solely for steadying and bore do weight. It was fortunate 
that the possibility of having to do work of this kind was foreseen, and that the labora- 
tory stores included several pieces of ebonite suitable for the purpose, and some graduated 
capillary tubes of the size used for the piezometers that were taken out. One or two 
spare indices were also taken, but the supply both of them and of capillary tubes was 
augmented by preserving the fragments of any thermometers that were broken. In this 
way an instrument can be- constructed filled with a very large quantity of mercury 
and a very small quantity of water, after whose immersion the position of the index 
shows the apparent volume assumed by this mixture under the combined influence of 
temperature and pressure. As far as the effects of temperature are concerned, the 
amount of water in the instrument is almost wholly negligible ; but when the effect of 
pressure is considered, the apparent compressibility of mercury is so small, being little 
more than one-fiftieth of that of water, that the presence of even so small a quantity 







of water as can be contained in the graduated tube increases very materially the 
amount of contraction produced by pressure. The instrument which was chiefly 
used contained 256 - 61 grammes of mercury in the bulb and stem immediately above 
it; the volume of the part of the stem filled with water was 0'1935 c.c. The 
apparent contraction of this mass of mercury and water was 0'000581 c.c. per 100 
fathoms, and 0^0025 c.c. per degree (C.) respectively. A fall therefore 
of one degree (C.) in temperature produced the same effect as an increase 
of pressure equal to 430 fathoms of sea water. Hence (and this forms 
the important peculiarity of the instrument) as long as the temperature 
of the sea does not increase with the depth at a greater rate than 1° C. 
per 430 fathoms, the instrument will record the temperature correctly. 
The ratio subsisting between the rise or fall of temperature and the 
column of water, which produced the same effect on the apparent 
volume, is a constant for each instrument ; in this  By 
altering only very slightly the amount of water, the sensibility to 
pressure is greatly increased or diminished, while that to temperature 
remains practically unchanged. As the instrument described was 
intended principally for bottom waters, the above 
ratio (flu) was considered sufficient, and it proved 
practically useful. It must be remembered that 
the greater the value of this ratio is made, the 
greater is the error introduced into the determina- 
tion of the temperature by any inaccuracy in the 
measurement of the depth. 

MANGANESE nodules were first discovered on the ocean floor 160 miles south-west of the Canary Islands on February 18, 1803, during the first complex oceano­ logical cruise of the Challenger. They surprised researchers by their unusual shape and also by their unusual chemical composition; nevertheless for many years after­ wards, they were considered merely as one of Nature's exotic marine tricks. After the Secpnd World War, a comprehensive investigation of the World Ocean started, and new data were obtained on a wide distribution of manganese nodules and their polymetallic composition, that made scientists consider nodules as one of the major characteristics of the deep oceanic zone. Recently, meaning since the 1960's, nodules have been recognized as a potential ore source, investigation of which is stimulated by the progressive depletion of land-based mineral resources. Several generations of scientists from various countries have contributed to the problem of exploration of manganese nodules on the ocean floor. Though the problem has been posed, it has not been solved yet because it required, in its turn, a scrutiny of some fundamental aspects such as composition, nature, accretion r'ate of nodules and retrieval of nodule fields. These problems have been discussed in thousands of papers and larger publications; see, in particulare, Mero, 1965; Horn, 1972; Morgenstein, 1973; Bezrukov, 1976; Glasby, 1977; Bischoff and Piper, 1979; Lalou, 1979; Manganese nodules, 1979; Varentsov, 1980; Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core.

 20 MEGAYEARS OF RIFT ATLANTIS II 

É PROVA DE PARAGEM NO AFUNDAMENTO CRUSTAL 80 MEGATONES DE SEDIMENTO COM 2,9 MEGATONES DE Zn  UND 1.1 MEGATONES DE COBRE ...ORA A FAIXA PIRITOSA IBÉRICA TEM MAIS COBRE E MAIS BARATA É SÓ REBENTAR TROTIL NO ALENTEJO OU AO LADO....

CHEGAR-SE-À A EQUACIONAR RECUPERAR (EUFEMISMO PARA EXTRAIR

COBRE E ZINCO DOS NÓDULOS?

QUIEN SABE?...E O PONTO DE ? ERA PARA?

TROIS BASSINS FERMÉS DE TEMPERATURA ANORMALMENTE ALTA NO MER ROUGE DESCOBERTOS EM 1948 

FOSSA ATLANTIS II 15 KM X 5 KM 

 A 3600 METROS DE PROFUNDIDADE

 ÁGUA DE FONTES HIDROTERMAIS 

 A 56º C E À SUPERFÍCIE CORRENTES 

 ASCENDENTES ATINGEM OS 44º C 

UMA CAMADA DE 40 METROS DE ESPESSURA COM SALINIDADES 7 VEZES

 SUPERIORES AOS 35 GRAMA POR LITRO

 

SEDIMENTOS DAS FOSSAS ARGILAS 

JAUNES ROUGES ET BLEUES 

COM SULFURETOS DE Cu 4% E Zn 9%

 traços de Au e Ag no material seco des couches colourés  

O PROCESSO DE SEPARAÇÃO É POUCO ECONÓMICA SEPARAR O Cu  E O NÍQUEL DAS MASSAS DE MANGANÊS E FERRO E OUTROS MAIS INTERESSANTES COMO OS VESTIGIAIS E O COBALTO....

Separation of iron from manganese and growth of manganese nodules as a consequence of diagenetic ageing of radiolarians



Abstract

111 samples of diagenetically aged radiolarians sampled in the Central Pacific manganese nodules belt were investigated chemically and microscopically.
Authigenic clays of the smectite group are precipitated in the cavities of radiolarian tests; metal oxides are precipitated on the surfaces of radiolarian tests. During these processes a separation of iron from manganese takes place: about 96% of the iron is bound to smectites and all of the manganese is bound to the oxide coatings of the radiolarians.
With further diagenesis, radiolarian tests are dissolved together with their oxide coatings. This dissolution of the oxide coatings provides material for the growth of manganese nodules, material which is depleted in Fe and enriched in Mn, Cu, and Zn.
The smectite aggregates that fill the cavities of radiolarian tests contain iron bound to their crystal lattice. Whereas radiolarian tests are dissolved during the diagenesis, these smectite aggregates do not dissolve and thus become enriched in older samples.