dijous, 30 d’abril de 2015

Criminal Law,’ the first edition of which appeared in the same year, though he does not yet venture to deny the existence of the crime or the expediency of its punishment, lays down many principles very inconsistent with the practice of the preceding century. “From the horridness of the crime,” says he, “I do conclude that of all crimes it requires the clearest relevancy and most convincing probature; and I condemn, next to the wretches themselves, those cruel and too forward judges who burn persons by thousands as guilty of this crime.” And accordingly, acting on these humane and cautious principles, Sir George, in his Report to the Judges in 1680, relative to a number of persons then in prison for this crime, stated that their confessions had been procured by torture, and that there seemed to be no other proof against them, on which they were set at liberty. “Since[Pg 87] which time,” adds Lord Royston, “there has been no trial for this crime before that court, nor before any other court, that I know of, except one at Paisley by commission from the Privy Council in anno 1697.” This observation of Lord Royston is not altogether correct. The trial at Paisley to which he alludes is evidently the noted case of the Renfrewshire witches, tried on a charge of sorcery against a girl named Christian Shaw, the daughter of Shaw of Bargarran. The conviction of the accused appears to have taken place principally on the evidence of the girl herself, who in the presence of the commissioners played off a series of ecstasies and convulsion fits, similar to those by which the nuns of Loudon had sealed the fate of Grandier the century before. In this atrocious case, the Commissioners (in the Report presented by them to the Privy Council, 9th March, 1697), reported that there were twenty-four persons, male and female, suspected of being concerned in the sorceries; and among them, it is to be observed, is a girl of fourteen, and a boy not twelve years of age. After this, we almost feel surprised that out of about twenty who were condemned, only five appear to have been executed. They were burnt on the green at Paisley. The last trial before the Court of Justiciary was that of Elspet Rule, tried before Lord Anstruther, on the Dumfries circuit, 3rd of May, 1708, where the prisoner, though convicted by a plurality of voices, was merely sentenced[Pg 88] to be burned on the cheek and banished Scotland for life. The last execution which took place was that of an old woman in the parish of Loth, executed at Dornoch in 1722, by sentence of the Sheriff depute of Caithness, Captain David Ross, of Little Dean. “It is said, that being brought out for execution, the weather proving very severe, she sat composedly warming herself by the fire, while the other instruments of death were made ready!”

Sin has ne possim naturæ accedere partes Frigidus obstiterit circum præcordia sanguis,”—
the ancient wizards pried, or affected to pry, into the very “incunabula vitæ.” Could we recover a few of those books which the sorcerers at Corinth burned and brought the price of them to St. Paul,[Pg 93] we should probably find in their pages, among some curious physical or medical secrets, nearly all the elements of a cruel and obscene superstition.
Rome, we know, was both early and deeply infected with the orgiastic worship of the East, and especially with the impure ceremonies of the priests of Isis. It was of no avail to level to the ground the Isiac chapels, and to banish their ministers. In an age of unbelief there was a passion for the mysteries of darkness; and although Christianity gradually superseded Paganism in form, the spirit of the latter long survived in the multitude, and especially among the ignorant rural population. James Grimm, in his erudite work upon the ‘Antiquities of the German Race,’ traces with great acuteness the connection between the superstitions of the Dark Ages and the magical formularies of Heathenism. The spells of witches, the abracadabra of quacks, and the loathsome furniture of Sidrophel’s laboratory are genuine descendants of the impostures and abominations which were practised for ages both in the Roman and Parthian empires.
In Lucian and Apuleius indeed we are presented with a singular and terrible aspect of social existence. The most ordinary acts and functions of life were believed to be affected by the invisible powers, and those powers were supposed to be willing to do service to all who were malignant enough to seek their aid, and fearless enough to[Pg 94] serve the apprenticeship which was demanded of them. It is easy to decry the weakness and detect the absurdity of such a creed. Yet it was believed: it excited terror: it nurtured revenge: it wrought withering and wasting effects upon the feeble and the credulous: it cast a dark shade over life: it was potent over the sinews of the strong and over the bloom of the beautiful: it exercised “upon the inmost mind” all “its fierce accidents,” and preyed upon the purest spirits,
“As on entrails, joints and limbs, With answerable pains, but more intense.”
It is idle to regard such a belief as a mere superficial or individual superstition. It pervaded all ranks of society, from the philosopher who disputed about a first cause, and the magistrate who viewed religion in the light of a useful system of police, to the shepherd who watched Orion and the Pleiades, and the miner who rarely beheld either sun or star. It was an erroneous, but it was an earnest, belief which drove men to consult with diviners, and to question the elements for signs and wonders.
Availing ourselves of Sir George Head’s excellent translation, we extract from the ‘Golden Ass’ of Apuleius a story which, to our conceptions, is unsurpassed for its horror by any of the dreariest legends of Pagan or Medieval sorcery.
“My master, the baker, was a well-behaved, tolerably good man, but his wife, of all the women[Pg 95] in the world, was the most wicked creature in existence, and continually rendered his home such a painful scene of tribulation to him, that, by Hercules, many is the time and oft that I have silently deplored his fate. The heart of that most detestable woman was like a common cess-pool, where all the evil dispositions of our nature were collected together. She was cruel, treacherous, malevolent, obstinate, penurious, yet profuse in expenses of dissipation, faithless to her husband, a cheat and a drunkard. One day I heard it said that the baker had procured a bill of divorce against his execrable helpmate, and this intelligence turned out in due time to be true. She, exasperated by the proceedings instituted against her, communicated with a certain woman who had the reputation of being a witch, and whose spells and incantations were of power unlimited. Having conciliated this woman by gifts and urgent supplications, she besought of her one of two things—either to soften the heart of her husband, so that he might be reconciled to her; or if unable to do that, to send a ghost or some evil spirit to put him to a violent death. In the first endeavour the sorceress totally failed, whereupon she set about contriving the death of my unfortunate master. To effect her purpose, she raised from the grave the shade of a woman who had been murdered. So one day, about noon, there entered the bakehouse a bare-footed woman half-clad, wearing a mourning mantle thrown across[Pg 96] her shoulders, her pale sallow features marked by a lowering expression of guilt, her grisly dishevelled hair sprinkled with ashes, and her front locks streaming over her face. Unexpectedly approaching the baker, and taking him gently by the hand, she drew him aside, and led him into an adjoining chamber, as if she had private intelligence to communicate. After the baker had departed, and a considerable period had elapsed without his returning, the servants went to his chamber-door and knocked very loudly, and, after continued silence, called several times, and thumped still harder than before. They then perceived that the door was carefully locked and bolted; upon which, at once concluding that some serious catastrophe had happened, they pushed against it with their utmost strength, and by a violent effort, either breaking the hinge or driving it out of its socket, they effected an entrance by force. The moment they were within the chamber, they saw the baker hanging quite dead from one of the beams of the ceiling, but the woman who had accompanied him had disappeared, and was nowhere to be seen.”
This evoking of the dead to destroy the living, this warring of a corpse with a living sold, and then the sudden dismissal, when its foul and fatal errand had been accomplished, of the ghost to its grave, presents to the mind a climax of terrors, for which we do not know where, in history or in fiction, to find a counterpart.
[Pg 97]The Lex Majestatis, or law of High Treason, was one of the most effectual and terrible weapons which the imperial constitution of Rome placed in the hands of its military despots. Against one offence this double-handled and sure-smiting engine was frequently levelled, viz. against the crime or the charge of inquiring into the probable duration of the Emperor’s life. This was done in various ways,—by fire applied to waxen images, by consulting the stars, by casting nativities, by employing prophets, by casual omens, but especially by certain permutations and combinations of numbers, “numeros Babylonios,” or the letters of the alphabet. The following extract from Ammianus Marcellinus affords an example of this treasonable sacrilege, the practice or suspicion of which, on so many occasions, led to the expulsion of the “mathematicians” from Italy. The Romans indeed, profoundly ignorant of science, or contemning it as the art of Greek adventurers or Egyptian priests, neither of whom were in good odour with the government at any period, gave to the current impostors of those days an appellation which Cambridge wranglers now account equal to a patent of nobility.
The following story seems to have been substantially a deposition taken before the magistrates of Constantinople, and extracted from the witnesses or defendants by torture. The principal deponent is said to have been brought “ad summas[Pg 98] angustias”—to the last gasp almost, before he would confess.
“This unlucky table,” he said, “which is now produced in court, we made up of laurel boughs, after the fashion of that which stands before the curtain at Delphi. Terrible were the auspices, awful the charms, long and painful the dances, which preceded and accompanied its construction and consecration. And as often as we consulted this disc or table, the following was our mode of procedure. It was set in the midst of a chamber which had previously been well purified by the smoke of Arabian gums and incense. On the table was placed a round dish, welded of divers metals. On the rim of the dish were engraven the twenty-four letters of the alphabet, separated from one another by equal and exactly measured spaces. Beside the table stood a certain man clad in linen, and having linen buskins or boots on his feet, with a handkerchief bound around his head. He waved in one hand a branch of vervain, that propitious herb; he recited a set formulary of verses, such as are wont to be sung before the Averruncal gods, He that stood by the table was no ordinary magician. With his other he held and shook a ring which was attached to curtains, spun from the finest Carpathian thread, and which had often before been used for such mystic incantations. The ring thus shaken dropped ever and anon between the interspaces of the letters, and[Pg 99] formed by striking the letters together certain words, which the sorcerer combined into number and measure, much after the manner of the priests who manage the oracles of the Pythian and Branchidian Apollo. Then, when we inquired who perchance would succeed to the reigning Emperor, the bright and smooth ring, leaping among the letters, struck together T, H, E, O, and afterwards a final S, so that one of the bystanders at once exclaimed that THEO[DORU]S was the emperor designated by the Fates. We asked no more questions: seeing that Theodorus was the person whom we had sought for.”
The lingering belief in the old religion, and in the magical and thaumaturgical practices which had, like ivy around an oak, gradually accrued to it, was productive in the decline of Paganism of many poetical forms of superstition. It is curious and instructive to remark the increasing earnestness with which the decaying creed of Heathendom sought to array itself against the encroachments of Christianity. The light persiflage with which the philosophy of the Augustan age treated the state-religion nearly disappears. The indifference of the magistrate gives place to an intolerant and indignant tone of reclamation. The Pagan Cæsars attack the new religion as a formidable antagonist; the Christian emperors, in their turn, assail directly or ferret out perseveringly the superstitions which lingered among the rural towns and districts. The[Pg 100] ancient gods are no longer regarded by either their worshipers or their opponents as simply deified heroes or men, but as powerful and mysterious beings, informed with demoniac energies and capable of conferring temporal good or evil,—beauty, power, and wealth, on the one hand; deformity, ignominy, and disease, on the other,—upon those who honoured or abjured them. Such conceptions of blessing or of bale were embodied in strange narratives of weeping or jubilant processions of majestic forms when the moon was hid in her vacant interlunar cave, of demons assuming the shape of fair enchantresses who beguiled men to their undoing, of palaces reared in a night and dislimning in the day, of banquets, like that visionary banquet in the wilderness, which Milton has adorned with all the graces of imagination in his ‘Paradise Lost.’
We can afford room for only two of the narratives of demoniac influence in which the later Pagans expressed their belief in the influence of the early gods.
1. The superstition of the Lamia. One result of the consolidation of Western Asia with Europe, under the Roman Empire, was to spread widely over the latter continent the germs of the serpent-worship of the East. The subtlest beast of the field, retaining in full vigour his powers of assuming tempting forms and uttering beguiling words, was wont, it seems, to disport himself among[Pg 101] the sons and daughters of men under the shape in which he deceived our general mother, the over-curious Eve. Especially did he delight to entrap some hopeful youth who was studying philosophy in the schools of Athens or Berytus, or some neophyte in the Christian Church. A fair young gentleman at Corinth had been abroad on a pleasure excursion, and might perchance be returning home a little the worse for wine. However this may have been, at the gates of Corinth he encountered a damsel richly attired, “beautiful exceedingly,” but with hair dishevelled, and drowned in tears. He began by inquiring the cause of her distress. Faithless servants had carried off her litter and left her lone. He offered her consolation, which she accepted, and his arm also, which she did not decline. She led him to a lordly palace in a bye street of the city, where he had never yet been. At its marble portico waited a crowd of slaves with torches awaiting their absent mistress, and the pair, now become fond, were ushered into a sumptuous banqueting hall, where a board was spread covered with all the delicacies of the season, and garnished with effulgent plate. In this palace of delight the young man abode many days, taking no account of time. But at length, cloyed with sweets, he proposed inviting a party of his college friends, much to the dismay of his fair hostess, who, with many tears and embraces, besought him to forego his wish. In an evil hour however he[Pg 102] persevered, and his rooms were filled with gownsmen, marvelling much, not without envy, at the good fortune that had befallen their chum, Lucius, no one knew how or why. But among the undergraduates came a grave and grey college tutor, deeply read in conjurors’ books, who could detect by his skill the devil under any shape. Pale and silent the old man sat at the festive board, and was ill-bred enough to stare the lady not only out of countenance, but out of her beauty also. She grew pale, livid, an indiscriminate form: she melted away; the palace melted also; the plate, the viands, and the wines vanished also; and in place of columns and ceiled roofs was a void square in Corinth, and in place of the damsel was a loathsome serpent, writhing in the agonies of dissolution. The white-bearded fellow had scanned and scotched and slain the snake—the Lamia—but he destroyed his patient also, for Lucius became a maniac; had the charm lasted awhile longer, his soul would have become the fiend’s property.
2. A young man had sorely offended the great goddess Venus, or, as she was called in his native city, the Syrian Byblus, Astarte. To redeem himself from the curse upon his board and bed,—for he had recently married a fair wife,—he applied to a wise astrologer. The sage heard his case, and advised him, as his only remedy, to go on a certain night, at its very noon, to a spot just without the gates, called the Pagan’s Tomb,—to station himself[Pg 103] on the roof of it, and to recite, at a prescribed moment, a certain formulary, with which his counsel, learned in magical law, furnished him. On the Pagan’s Tomb accordingly the young man placed himself at the noon of night, and awaited his deliverance. And presently, towards the confines of morning, was heard a sound of sad and solemn music, and of much wailing, and of the measured tread of a long procession. And there drew nigh a mournful company of persons, who might have seemed men and women, but for their extraordinary stature, and their surpassing majesty and beauty: and the young man remembered the words of the magician, and knew that before him was the goodly company of the gods whom his forefathers in past generations had worshiped. One only of that august and weeping band was borne in a chariot—the god Saturn—perhaps by reason of his great age; and to Saturn he addressed his prayer, which was of such potency that Saturn straightway commanded Astarte to release the petitioner from the curse she had laid upon him.
We have been able merely to indicate how wide a field lies beyond the proper domain of medieval witchcraft. It would be curious to trace the similarity of the Heathen and Christian superstitions, or rather the derivation of one from the other. But we must reserve this subject to some other[Pg 104] occasion, and conclude with repeating the wish with which we commenced, that some competent hand would undertake to trace through all its ramifications the obscure yet recompensing subject of Magic and Witchcraft.

THE END.

JOHN EDWARD TAYLOR, PRINTER,
LITTLE QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN’S INN FIELDS.



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He mentions that an unfortunate gentleman in Westphalia had been twenty times put to the rack, “vicies sævæ quæstioni subditum,” in order to compel him to confess that he was a were-wolf! All these tortures he resisted, till the hangman gave him an intoxicating draught, and under its influence he confessed that he was a were-wolf after all. “En judicum clemens arbitrium,” says Delrio, “quo se porrigat in illis partibus aquilonaribus.”—See how long-suffering we judges are in the north! we never put our criminals to death till we have tried them with twenty preliminary courses of torture! This is perfectly in the spirit of another worthy in Germany, who had been annoyed with the pertinacity of a witch, who, like the poor lycanthrope, persisted in maintaining her innocence. “Da liess ich sie tüchtig foltern,” says the inquisitor—“und sie gestand;”—I tortured her tightly (the torture lasted four hours), and she confessed! Who indeed under such a system would not have confessed? Death was unavoidable either way, and the great object was to attain that consummation with the least preparatory pain. “I went,” says Sir George Mackenzie, “when I[Pg 22] was a Justice Depute, to examine some women who had confessed judicially. One of them, who was a silly creature, told me that she had not confessed because she was guilty, but, being a poor creature who wrought for her meat, and being defamed for a witch, she knew she would starve, for no person hereafter would give her meat or lodging, and that all men would beat her and hound dogs at her, and that therefore she desired to be out of the world. Whereupon she wept most bitterly, and upon her knees called God to witness to what she said[17].” In other cases, the torture was applied not only to the individual accused, but to his relations or friends, to secure confession. In Alison Pearson’s case[18], it appears that her daughter, a girl of nine years of age, had been placed in the pilliewinks, and her son subjected to about fifty strokes in the boots. Where the torture was not corporeally applied, terror, confusion, and the influence of others frequently produced the same effect on the weak minds of the accused. In the case of the New England witches in 1696, six of the poor women who were liberated in the general gaol-delivery which took place after this reign of terror began to decline, (and who had all confessed previously that they had been guilty of the witchcrafts imputed to them,) retracted their confessions in writing, attributing them to the consternation[Pg 23] produced by their sudden seizure and imprisonment. “And indeed,” said they, “that confession which it is said we made was no other than what was suggested to us by some gentlemen, they telling us we were witches, and they knew it, and we knew it, and they knew that we knew it, which made us think that it was so, and our understanding, our reason, and our faculties almost gone, we were not capable of judging our condition. And most of what we said was but a consenting to what they saidEin Hexen hat man gefangen, zu Zeit die war sehr reich Mit der man lang umbgaben ehe sie bekannte gleich, Dann sie blieb darauf beständig es gescheh ihr Unrecht gross, Bis man ihr macht nothwendig diesen artlichen Poss(!), Das ich mich drüber wunder; man schickt ein Henkersknecht Zu ihr ins Gefängniss ’nunter, den man hat kleidet recht Mit einer Bärnhaute als wenns der Teufel wär; Als ihm die Drut anschaute meynts ihr Buhl kam daher. Sie sprach zu ihm behende, wie lestu mich so lang In der Obrigkeit Hände? Hilf mir aus ihren Zwang, Wie du mir hast verheissen, ich bin ja eben dein; Thu mich aus der Angst entreissen, o liebster Bule mein! Sie thet sich selbst verrathen, und gab Anzeigung viel Sie hat nit geschmeckt den Braten, was das war für ein Spiel(!). Er tröstet sie und saget, ich will dir helfen wohl; Darum sey unverzaget, Morgens geschehen soll.‘Acta et Scripta Magica.’ It is regularly divided into twenty-nine burnings, and contains the names of 157 persons, Hauber stating at the same time that the catalogue is not complete. It is impossible to peruse this catalogue without horror. The greater part of it consists of old women or foreign travellers, seized, it would appear, as foreigners were at Paris during the days of Marat and Robespierre: it contains children of twelve, eleven, ten, and nine years of age, fourteen vicars of the cathedral, two boys of noble families, the two little sons (söhnlein) of the senator Stolzenburg; a stranger boy; a blind girl; Gobel Babelin, the handsomest girl in Wurtzburg, etc Sanguine placârunt Divos et virgine cæsá!” And yet, frightful as this list of 157 persons executed in two years appears, the number is not[Pg 17] (taking the population of Wurtzburg into account) so great as in the Lindheim process from 1660 to 1664. For in that small district, consisting at the very utmost of six hundred inhabitants, thirty persons were condemned and put to death, making a twentieth part of the whole population consumed in four years. How dreadful are the results to which these data lead! If we take 157 as a fair average of the executions at Wurtzburg (and the catalogue itself states that the list was by no means complete), the amount of executions there in the course of the century preceding 1628 would be 15,700. We know that from 1610 to 1660 was the great epoch of the witch trials, and that so late as 1749 Maria Renata was executed at Wurtzburg for witchcraft; and though in the interval between 1660 and that date it is to be hoped that the number of these horrors had diminished, there can be little doubt that several thousands must be added to the amount already stated. If Bamberg, Paderborn, Treves, and the other Catholic bishoprics, whose zeal was not less ardent, furnished an equal contingent, and if the Protestants, as we know[14], actually vied with them in the extent to which these cruelties were carried, the number of victims from the date of Innocent’s bull to the[Pg 18] final extinction of these persecutions must considerably exceed 100,000 in Germany. Even the feeling of horror excited by the perusal of the Wurtzburg murders is perhaps exceeded by that to which another document relative to the state of matters in 1629 must give rise: namely a ballad on the subject of these executions, detailing in doggrel verses the sufferings of the unfortunate victims, “to be sung to the tune of Dorothea”—a common street-song of the day. It is entitled the ‘Druten Zeitung,’ or Witches’ Chronicle, “being an account of the remarkable events which took place in Franconia, Bamberg, and Wurtzburg, with those wretches who from avarice or ambition have sold themselves to the devil, and how they had their reward at last; set to music, and to be sung to the air of Dorothea.” It is graced also with some hideous devices in wood, representing three devils seizing on divers persons by the hair of their heads, legs, etc., and dragging them away. It commences and concludes with some pious reflections on the guilt of the witches and wizards, whose fate it commemorates with the greatest glee and satisfaction. One device in particular, by which a witch who had obstinately resisted the torture is betrayed into confession—namely, by sending into her prison the hangman disguised as her familiar (Buhl Teufel)—seems to meet with the particular approbation of the author, who calls it an excellent joke; and no doubt the[Pg 19] point of it in his eyes was very much increased by the consideration that upon the confession, as it was called, so obtained, the unhappy wretch was immediately committed to the flames[15]. What are we to think of the state of feeling in the country where these horrors were thus made the subject of periodical ballads, and set to music for the amusement of the populace[ .

 Ein Hexen hat man gefangen, zu Zeit die war sehr reich
Mit der man lang umbgaben ehe sie bekannte gleich,
Dann sie blieb darauf beständig es gescheh ihr Unrecht gross,
Bis man ihr macht nothwendig diesen artlichen Poss(!),

Das ich mich drüber wunder; man schickt ein Henkersknecht
Zu ihr ins Gefängniss ’nunter, den man hat kleidet recht
Mit einer Bärnhaute als wenns der Teufel wär;
Als ihm die Drut anschaute meynts ihr Buhl kam daher.

Sie sprach zu ihm behende, wie lestu mich so lang
In der Obrigkeit Hände? Hilf mir aus ihren Zwang,
Wie du mir hast verheissen, ich bin ja eben dein;
Thu mich aus der Angst entreissen, o liebster Bule mein!

Sie thet sich selbst verrathen, und gab Anzeigung viel
Sie hat nit geschmeckt den Braten, was das war für ein Spiel(!).
Er tröstet sie und saget, ich will dir helfen wohl;
Darum sey unverzaget, Morgens geschehen soll.



the extent of the horrors which for two centuries and a half followed, our readers we suspect have but a very imperfect conception; we remember as in a dream that on this accusation persons were occasionally burnt, and one or two remarkable relations from our own annals or those of the Continent may occur to our recollection. But of the extent of these judicial murders, no one who has not dabbled a little in the history of demonology has any idea. No sooner has Innocent placed his commission of fire and sword in the hands of Sprenger and his brethren, and a regular form of process for the trial of this offence been laid down in that unparalleled performance, the ‘Malleus Maleficarum,’ which was intended as a theological and juridical commentary on the Bull, than the race of witches seems at once to increase and multiply, till it replenishes the earth. The original edict of persecution was enforced by the successive bulls of the infamous Alexander VI. in 1494 (to whom Satan might indeed have addressed  remonstrance “et tu Brute!”), of Leo X. in 1521, and of Adrian VI. in 1522. Still the only effect of these commissions was to render the evil daily more formidable, till at last, if we are to believe the testimonies of contemporary historians, Europe was little better than a large suburb or outwork of Pandemonium. One-half of the population was either bewitching or bewitched. Delrio tells us in his preface that 500 witches were executed in Geneva in three months, about the year 1515. A thousand, says Bartholomæus de Spina, were executed in one year in the diocese of Como, and they went on burning at the rate of a hundred per annum for some time after. In Lorraine, from 1580 to 1595, Remigius boasts of having burned 900. In France the multitude of executions about 1520 is incredible; Danæus, in the first part of his dialogue concerning witches, calls it “infinitum pene veneficorum numerum.” The well-known sorcerer, Trois Echelles, told Charles IX., while he was at Poitou, the names of 1200 of his associates. This calculation is according to Mezeray’s more reasonable version of the story, for the author of the ‘Journal du Règne de Henri III.’ makes the number 3000, and Bodinus, not satisfied even with this allowance, adds a cypher, and makes the total return of witches denounced by Trois Echelles 30,000, though he does at the same time express some doubt as to the correctness of this account. In Germany, to which indeed the bull of[Pg 16] Innocent bore particular reference, this plague raged to a degree almost inconceivable. Bamberg, Paderborn, Wurtzburg, and Treves were its chief seats, though for a century and a half after the introduction of the trials under the commission no quarter of that great empire was free from its baneful influence. It would be wearisome and revolting to go through the details of these atrocities; but “ab uno disce omnes.” A catalogue of the executions at Wurtzburg for the period from 1627 to February 1629, about two years and two months, is printed by Hauber in the conclusion of his third volume of the ‘Acta et Scripta Magica.’ 
 Lotichius, Oratorio super fatalibus hoc tempore Academiarum periculis: 1631. Lotichius took the trouble to compose a Latin poem on the subject of his triumphal entry. A book entitled ‘Mammon’ had some reputation in its day. The acknowledged author’s name indeed is Harris; yet some commentator of the year 2150 will perhaps suggest that it was ‘Old Harry’s Mammo

The trade of a pricker, as it was called, i. e. a person who put pins into the flesh of a witch, was a regular one in Scotland and England, as well as on the Continent. Sir George Mackenzie mentions the case of one of them who confessed the imposture (p. 48); and a similar instance is mentioned by Spottiswood (p. 448). Sir Walter Scott gives the following account of this trade:—“One celebrated mode of detecting witches, and torturing them at the same time, to draw forth confession, was, by running pins into their body, on pretence of discovering the devil’s stigma, or mark, which was said to be inflicted by him upon all his vassals, and to be insensible to pain. This species of search, the practice of the infamous Hopkins, was in Scotland reduced to a trade; and the young witch-finder was allowed to torture the accused party, as if in exercise of a lawful calling, although Sir George Mackenzie stigmatizes it as a horrid imposture. I observe in the Collections of Mr. Pitcairn, that, at the trial of Janet Peaston of Dalkeith, the magistrates and ministers of that market-town caused John Kincaid of Tranent, the common pricker, to exercise his craft upon her, ‘who found two marks of what he called the devil’s making, and which appeared indeed to be so, for she could not feel the pin when it was put into either of the said marks, nor did they (the marks) bleed when they were taken out again; and when she was asked where she thought the pins were put in, she pointed to a part of her body distant from the real place. They were pins of three inches in length.’ Besides the fact, that the persons of old people especially sometimes contain spots void of sensibility, there is also room to believe that the professed prickers used a pin, the point or lower part of which was, on being pressed down, sheathed in the upper, which was hollow for the purpose, and that which appeared to enter the body did not pierce it at all.”—Demonology and Witchcraft, p. 297.Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, Nocturnos lemures, partentaque Thessala rides?” Horacius An amusing work appeared at Mainz, in 1826, from the pen of “Herr Kirchenrath” Horst, the title of which, translated in extenso, runs thus:—“The Magical Library; or, of Magic, Theurgy, and Necromancy; Magicians, Witches, and Witch Trials, Demons, Ghosts, and Spectral Appearances. By G. C. Horst, Church-Counsellor to the Grand Duke of Hesse.” The following pages formed a review of this work, which appeared many years ago[1]. This book of the worthy Church-Counsellor is rather a singular one: it is not a history of Magic, but a sort of spiritual periodical, or magazine of infernal science, supported in a great measure by[Pg 2] contributions from persons of a ghostly turn of mind, who, although they affect occasionally to write in a Sadducee vein, are many of them half-believers at heart, and would not walk through a churchyard at night, except for a consideration larger than we should like to pay. The field over which it travels is too extensive, for us to attempt to follow the author throughout his elaborate subdivisions. Dante divided hell, like Germany, into circles; and Mr. Horst, adopting something of a similar arrangement, has parcelled out the territory of the Prince of the Air into sundry regular divisions, by which its whole bearings and distances are made plain enough for the use of infant schools. It is only at one of the provinces of the Inferno, however, that we can at present afford to glance; though for those who are inclined to make the grand tour, the Counsellor may be taken as an intelligent travelling companion, well acquainted with the road. In fact his work is so methodical and distinct, and the geography of the infernal regions so clearly laid down, according to the best authorities, from Jamblichus and Porphyry down to Glanvil and the Abbé Fiard, that the whole district is now about as well known as the course of the Niger; and it must be the traveller’s own fault if he does not find his exit from Avernus as easy as its entrance has proverbially been since the days of Virgil. The picture, however, drawn by these intelligent[Pg 3] spiritual travellers is by no means calculated to impress us with a high notion of the dominions of the Prince of the Air, or that the personnel of his majesty or his government are prepossessing. The climate, as all of them, from Faust downwards, agree, is oppressively hot, and the face of the country apparently a good deal like that between Birmingham and Wolverhampton, abounding with furnaces and coal-pits. Literature is evidently at a low ebb, from the few specimens of composition with which we are favoured in the Zauber-Bibliothek, and the sciences, with the exception of some practical applications of chemistry, shamefully neglected. The government seems despotical, but subject to occasional explosions on the part of the more influential spirits concerned in the executive. In fact, the departments of the administration are by no means well arranged; there is no proper division of labour, and the consequence is, that Beelzebub, “Mooned Ashtaroth,” and others of the ministry, who, according to the theory of the constitution[2] are entitled to precedence, are constantly jostled and interfered with by[Pg 4] Aziel, Mephistopheles, Marbuel, and other forward second-rate spirits, who are continually thrusting in their claws where they are not called for. The standing army is considerable[3], besides the volunteers by which it is continually augmented. Nothing is heard however of the navy, and from the ominous silence which our geographers preserve on this point, it is easy to see that water is a rare element in this quarter. The hints given as to the personal appearance and conduct of Lucifer, the reigning monarch, are not flattering. Common readers are apt to believe that Satan occupies that dignity[4], but this is a great error, and only shows, as Asmodeus told Don Cleofas, when he fell into a similar mistake about Beelzebub, “that they have no true notions of hell.” The morals of Lucifer, as might be expected, are as bad as possible, with this exception, that we see no evidence of his being personally addicted to[Pg 5] drinking. His licentious habits, however, are attested by many a scandalous chronicle in Sprenger, Delrio, and Bodinus; and for swearing, all the world knows that Ernulphus was but a type of him. His jokes are all practical and of a low order, and there is an utter want of dignity in most of his proceedings. One of his most facetious amusements consists in constantly pulling the spits, on which his witches are riding, from beneath them, and applying them vigorously to their shoulders; and he has more than once administered personal chastisement to his servants, when they neglected to keep an appointment. He is a notorious cheat; many enterprising young men, who have enlisted in his service on the promise of high pay and promotion, having found, on putting their hands into their pockets, that he had paid them their bounty in tin sixpences, and having never risen even to the rank of a corporal. His talent might, from these narratives, be considered very mediocre, and therefore we are afraid that the ingenious selection from his papers, published by Jean Paul[5], must be a literary forgery. At least all his printed speeches are bad,—flashy enough, no doubt, in the commencement, but generally ending in smoke. He has always had a fancy for appearing in masquerade, and[Pg 6] once delivered a course of lectures on magic at Salamanca, in the disguise of a professor. So late as 1626, he lived incog., but in a very splendid style, for a whole winter, in Milan, under the title of the Duke of Mammon[6]. It is in vain, however, for his partial biographers to disguise the fact, that in his nocturnal excursions, of which, like Haroun Alraschid, he was at one time rather fond, and where, we learn from the Swedish witches, he generally figured in a grey coat and red small-clothes, ornamented with ribbons and blue stockings, he has more than once received a sound drubbing from honest people, whom he has attempted to trip up by laying his tail in their way. And, in fact, since his affair with St. Dunstan, he has kept pretty much withindoors after nightfall. Luther, as we know, kept no terms with him when he began to crack hazel-nuts in his bedroom at the Wartburg, but beat him all to nothing in a fair contest of ribaldry and abuse, besides leaving an indelible blot of ink upon his red smalls[7]. St. Lupus shut him up for a whole night in a pitcher of cold water, into which he had (as he thought,[Pg 7] cunningly) conveyed himself, with the hope that the saint would swallow him unawares[8]. This however, considering his ordinary temperature, must have been an act of kindness, which should have brought on St. Lupus the censure of the church. St. Anthony, in return for a very polite offer of his services, spat in his face; which hurt his feelings so much, that it was long before he ventured to appear in society again[9]. And although in his many transactions with mankind he is constantly trying to secure some unfair advantage, a person of any talent, particularly if he has been bred a lawyer[10], is a match for him; and there are numerous cases in the books, in which his majesty, attempting to apprehend the person of a debtor, has been unexpectedly defeated by an ingenious saving clause in the bond, which, like Shylock, he had overlooked, and non-suited in the ecclesiastical courts, where he commonly sues, with costs[11]. Finally, we infer from the Mora Trials, that his[Pg 8] general health must have suffered from the climate, for in 1669 he was extremely ill in Sweden; and though he got over the attack for a time, by bleeding and an antiphlogistic regimen, the persons who were about him thought his constitution was breaking up, and that he was still in a dying way. Such is the grotesque aspect of the legendary Lucifer and his court, which a course of dæmonology presents to us! But though we have thus spoken with levity of these gross and palpable conceptions of the evil principle, and though undoubtedly the first impression produced by such a farrago must be a ludicrous one, the subject, we fear, has also its serious side. An Indian deity, with its wild distorted shape and grotesque attitude, appears merely ridiculous when separated from its accessories and viewed by daylight in a museum. But restore it to the darkness of its own hideous temple, bring back to our recollection the victims that have bled upon its altar, or been crushed beneath its car, and our sense of the ridiculous subsides into aversion and horror. So, while the superstitious dreams of former times are regarded as mere speculative insanities, we may for a moment be amused with the wild incoherencies[Pg 9] of the patients; but when we reflect that out of these hideous misconceptions of the principle of evil arose the belief in witchcraft; that this was no dead faith, but one operating on the whole being of society, urging on the mildest and the wisest to deeds of murder, or cruelties scarcely less than murder; that the learned and the beautiful, young and old, male and female, were devoted by its influence to the stake and the scaffold,—every feeling disappears except that of astonishment that such things could be, and humiliation at the thought that the delusion was as lasting as it was universal. It is true that the current of human opinion seems now to set in a different direction, and that if the evil spirit of persecution is again to re-appear on earth, his avatar must in all probability be made in a different form. Our brains are no longer, as Dr. Francis Hutchinson says of Bodinus, “mere storehouses for devils to dance in;” and if the influence of the great enemy is still as active as before on earth, in the shape of evil passions, he at least keeps personally in the background, and has changed his tactics entirely since the days of the ‘Malleus Maleficarum.’ “For Satan now is wiser than before, And tempts by making rich—not making poor.” Still however it is always a useful check to the pride of the human mind, to look to those delusions which have darkened it, more especially to[Pg 10] such as have originated in feelings in themselves exalted and laudable. Such is unquestionably the case in regard to one of the gloomiest chapters in the history of human error, the belief in witchcraft and its consequences. The wish to raise ourselves above the visible world, and to connect ourselves with beings supposed to occupy a higher rank in creation, seemed at first calculated to exercise only a beneficent influence on the mind. Men looked upon it as a sort of Jacob’s ladder, by which they were to establish a communication between earth and heaven, and by means of which angelic influences might be always ascending and descending upon the heart of man. But, unfortunately, the supposition of this actual and bodily intercourse with spirits of the better order, involved also a similar belief as to the possibility of establishing a free trade with the subterranean powers, “Who lurk in ambush, in their earthy cover, And, swift to hear our spells, come swarming up;” and from these theoretical opinions, once established and acted upon, all the horrors of those tempestuous times flowed as a natural consequence. For thus the kingdoms of light and darkness were brought into open contest: if Satan was ready at every one’s call, to send out his spirits like Swiss mercenaries, it became equally necessary for the true believer to rise in arms against him with fire and sword; any wavering on his part was[Pg 11] construed into apostasy, and he who did not choose to be persecuted himself was driven in self-defence to become a persecutor. The grand postulate of direct diabolical agency being once assumed and quietly conceded on all hands, any absurdity whatever was easily engrafted on it. Satan being thus brought home, as it were, to men’s business and bosoms, every one speculated on his habits and demeanour according to his own light; and soon the insane fancies of minds crazed by nature, disease, or misfortunes, echoed and repeated from all sides, gathered themselves into a code or system of faith, which, being instilled into the mind with the earliest rudiments of instruction, fettered even the strongest intellects with its baleful influence. The mighty minds of Luther, of Calvin, and of Knox, so quick in detecting error, so undaunted and merciless in exposing it, yielded tamely to its thrall; the upright and able Sir Matthew Hale passed sentence of death, in 1664, on two poor women accused of witchcraft, and Sir Thomas Browne, the historian of “Vulgar Errors,” who was examined as a witness on the trial, gave it as his opinion that the fits under which the patients had laboured, though natural in themselves, were “heightened by the Devil co-operating with the malice of the witches, at whose instance he did the villanies!” and apparently on this evidence chiefly did the conviction proceed. Neither, in fact, were the incongruities and[Pg 12] inconsistencies of the witch-creed of the time so calculated, as they might at first sight appear, to awaken men’s minds to the radical insanity of the belief. The dash of the ludicrous, which mingles itself with almost all the exploits of Satan and his satellites, grew, naturally enough, out of the monkish conception of Satan, and might be supposed not inconsistent with the character of a set of beings whose proceedings of course could not be expected to resemble those either of men or angels. The monkish Satan has no dignity about him: in soul and body he is low and deformed. “Gli occhi ha vermigli, e la barba unta ed atra, E ’l ventre largo, ed unghiate le mani, Graffia gli spirti, gli scuoja, ed isquatra LONDON: CHAPMAN AND HALL, 193, PICCADILLY. 1852. PRINTED BY JOHN EDWARD TAYLOR, LITTLE QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN’S INN FIELDS.

a history of Magic and Witchcraft. The records of human opinion would contain few chapters more instructive than one which should deal competently with the Black Art. For gross and painful as the details of superstition may be, yet superstition, by its very etymology, implies a dogma or a system of practice standing upon some basis of fact or truth: and however vain or noxious the superstructure may be, the foundation of it is in some way connected with those deep verities upon which rest also the roots of philosophy and religion.
For a grand error, and such alone can at any time essentially affect the opinions of mankind in general, is ever the imitation or caricature of some grand truth. From one soil spring originally the tree which yields good fruit and the plant which[Pg iv] distils deadly poison. The very discernment of the causes of error is a step towards the discovery of its opposite. The bewilderments of the mind of man, when fully analysed, afford a clue to the course of its movements from the right track, or at least enable us to detect the point at which began the original separation between Truth and Error. Alchemy led, by no very circuitous route, to the science of chemistry; the adoption of false gods by the majority of the human race rendered necessary the dispensations of the Jewish and Christian schemes; and the corruption of true reverence for the Good, the Beautiful, and the Holy, was the parent of those arts, which, under the several appellations of Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery, etc., drew their professors at first and the multitude afterwards to put faith in the evil, the deformed, and the impure. Magic and Witchcraft are little more than the religious instincts of mankind, first inverted, then polluted, and finally, like all corrupted matter, impregnated with the germs of a corrupt vitality.
So universal is the belief in spiritual influences, and more especially in their malignant influences, that no race of men, no period of time, no region of the globe, have been exempt from it. It meets us in the remote antiquity of Asiatic life, in the comparatively recent barbarism of the American aborigines, in the creeds of all the nations who branched off thousands of years ago eastward and westward from their Caucasian cradle, in the myths, the observances, and the dialects of nations who have no other affinity with one another than the mere form of man.
No nation, indeed, can reproach another nation with its addiction to magic without in an equal degree condemning itself. All the varieties of mankind have, in this respect, erred alike at different periods of their social existence, and all accordingly come under the same condemnation of making and loving a lie. The Chaldean erred when, dissatisfied with simple observation of the heavenly bodies through the luminous atmosphere of his plains, he perverted astronomy into astrology: the Egyptian erred when he represented the omnipresence of the Deity by the ubiquity of animal worship: the Hindoo erred when, having conceived the idea of an incarnation, he clothed with flesh and fleshly attributes the members of his monstrous pantheon: the Kelt and Teuton erred when, in their silent and solitary forests, they stained the serenity of nature with the deified attributes of war; and the more settled and civilized races who built and inhabited the cities of the ancient world, erred in their conversion of the indivisible unity of the Demiourgos or World-Creator[Pg vi] into an anthropomorphic system of several gods. But the very universality of the error points to some common ground for it in the recesses of the human heart; and since Paganism under all its forms was the corruption of religion, and Witchcraft in its turn the corruption of Paganism, an inquiry into the seeds of this evil fruit cannot fail to be also in some measure an investigation of the very ‘incunabula’ of human error.

Now,’ said he, very crossly indeed, ‘tell me how you got here. This Chosen of the Gods business is all very well for the vulgar. But you and I know that there is no such thing as magic.’ ‘Speak for yourself,’ said Quentin. ‘If I’m not here by magic I’m not here at all.’ ‘Yes, you are,’ said Blue Mantle. ‘I know I am,’ said Quentin, ‘but if I’m not here by magic what am I here by?’ ‘Stowawayishness,’ said Blue Mantle. ‘If you think that why don’t you treat me as a stowaway?’ ‘Because of public opinion,’ said Blue Mantle, rubbing his nose in an angry sort of perplexedness I came here by magic, accidental magic. I belong to quite a different world from yours. But perhaps you are right about my being the Chosen of the Gods. And I sha’n’t tell you anything about my world. But I command you, by the Sacred Tau’ (he had been quick enough to catch and remember the word), ‘to tell me who you are, and 83where you come from, and where you are going.’ Blue Mantle shrugged his shoulders. ‘Oh, well,’ he said, ‘if you invoke the sacred names of Power…. But I don’t call it fair play. Especially as you know perfectly well, and just want to browbeat me into telling lies. I shall not tell lies. I shall tell you the truth.’ ‘I hoped you would,’ said Quentin gently. ‘Well then,’ said Blue Mantle, ‘I am a Priest of Poseidon, and I come from the great and immortal kingdom of Atlantis.’ ‘From the temple where the gold statue is, with the twelve sea-horses in gold?’ Quentin asked eagerly. ‘Ah, I knew you knew all about it,’ said Blue Mantle, ‘so I don’t need to tell you that I am taking the sacred stone, on which you are sitting (profanely if you are a mere stowaway, and not the Chosen of the Gods) to complete the splendid structure of a temple built on a great plain in the second of the islands which are our colonies in the North East.’ ‘Tell me all about Atlantis,’ said Quentin. And the priest, protesting that Quentin knew as much about it as he did, told. And all the time the ship was ploughing through the waves, sometimes sailing, sometimes 84rowed by hidden rowers with long oars. And Quentin was served in all things as though he had been a king. If he had insisted that he was not the Chosen of the Gods everything might have been different. But he did not. And he was very anxious to show how much he knew about Atlantis. And sometimes he was wrong, the Priest said, but much more often he was right. ‘We are less than three days’ journey now from the Eastern Isles,’ Blue Mantle said one day, ‘and I warn you that if you are a mere stowaway you had better own it. Because if you persist in calling yourself the Chosen of the Gods you will be expected to act as such—to the very end.’ ‘I don’t call myself anything,’ said Quentin, ‘though I am not a stowaway, anyhow, and I don’t know how I came here—so of course it was magic. It’s simply silly your being so cross. I can’t help being here. Let’s be friends.’ ‘Well,’ said Blue Mantle, much less crossly, ‘I never believed in magic, though I am a priest, but if it is, it is. We may as well be friends, as you call it. It isn’t for very long, anyway,’ he added mysteriously. .Who are you?’ he said. ‘Answer, I adjure you by the Sacred Tau!’...TAU TAU GAMA GAMA He scrambled out of the cupboard, and the boots and goloshes fell off him like spray off a bather THE MAGIC WORLD BY E. NESBIT

To have your hair cut is not painful, nor does it hurt to have your whiskers trimmed. But round wooden shoes, shaped like bowls, are not comfortable wear, however much it may amuse the onlooker to see you try to walk in them. If you have a nice fur coat like a company promoter’s, it is most annoying to be made to swim in it. And if you had a tail, surely it would be solely your own affair; that any one should tie a tin can to it would strike you as an unwarrantable impertinence—to say the least.
Yet it is difficult for an outsider to see these things from the point of view of both the persons concerned. To Maurice, scissors in hand, alive and earnest to snip, it seemed the most natural thing in the world to shorten the stiff whiskers of Lord Hugh Cecil by a generous inch. He did not understand how useful those whiskers were to Lord Hugh, both in sport and in the more serious business of getting a living.  
Also it amused Maurice to throw Lord Hugh into ponds, though Lord Hugh only once permitted this liberty. To put walnuts on Lord Hugh’s feet and then to watch him walk on ice was, in Maurice’s opinion, as good as a play. Lord Hugh was a very favourite cat, but Maurice was discreet, and Lord Hugh, except under violent suffering, was at that time anyhow, dumb.
But the empty sardine-tin attached to Lord Hugh’s tail and hind legs—this had a voice, and, rattling against stairs, banisters, and the legs of stricken furniture, it cried aloud for vengeance. Lord Hugh, suffering violently, added his voice, and this time the family heard. There was a chase, a chorus of ‘Poor pussy!’ and ‘Pussy, then!’ and the tail and the tin and Lord Hugh were caught under Jane’s bed. The tail and the tin acquiesced in their rescue. Lord Hugh did not. He fought, scratched, and bit. Jane carried the scars of that rescue for many a long week

 Thus,’ he cried, ‘thus do I bathe the sacred blade in the pure fountain of all light, all wisdom, all splendour. In the name of the ten kings, the ten virtues, the ten hopes, the ten fears I make my weapon clean! May this temple of our love and our desire endure for ever, so long as the glory of our Lord the Sun is shed upon this earth. May the sacrifice I now humbly and proudly offer be acceptable to the gods by whom it has been so miraculously provided. Chosen of the Gods! return to the gods who sent thee!’
A roar of voices rang through the temple. The bronze knife was raised over Quentin. He could not believe that this, this horror, was the end of all these wonderful happenings.
‘No—no,’ he cried, ‘it’s not true. I’m not the Chosen of the Gods! I’m only a little boy that’s got here by accidental magic!’
‘Silence,’ cried the priest, ‘Chosen of the Immortals, close your eyes! It will not hurt. 92This life is only a dream; the other life is the real life. Be strong, be brave!’
Quentin was not brave. But he shut his eyes. He could not help it. The glitter of the bronze knife in the sunlight was too strong for him.
He could not believe that this could really have happened to him. Every one had been so kind—so friendly to him. And it was all for this!
Suddenly a sharp touch at his side told him that for this, indeed, it had all been. He felt the point of the knife.
‘Mother!’ he cried. And opened his eyes again.
He always felt quite sure afterwards that ‘Mother’ was the master-word, the spell of spells. For when he opened his eyes there was no priest, no white-robed worshippers, no splendour of colour and metal, no Chosen of the Gods, no knife—only a little boy with a piece of sacking over him, damp with the night dews, lying on a stone amid the grey ruins of Stonehenge, and, all about him, a crowd of tourists who had come to see the sun’s first shaft strike the age-old altar of Stonehenge on Midsummer Day in the morning. And instead of a knife point at his side there was only the ferrule of the umbrella of an elderly and retired tea merchant in a mackintosh and an Alpine 93hat,—a ferrule which had prodded the sleeping boy so unexpectedly surprised on the very altar stone where the sun’s ray now lingered.
And then, in a moment, he knew that he had not uttered the spell in vain, the word of compelling, the word of power: for his mother was there kneeling beside him. I am sorry to say that he cried as he clung to her. We cannot all of us be brave, always.
The tourists were very kind and interested, and the tea merchant insisted on giving Quentin something out of a flask, which was so nasty that Quentin only pretended to drink, out of politeness. His mother had a carriage waiting, and they escaped to it while the tourists were saying, ‘How romantic!’ and asking each other whatever in the world had happened.

THE GIFT : Philosophy, Alchemy and Theology are all a part of Magic’shistory, but really had nothing to do with the scientific study of the topic. Which let him to theidea of collecting his data, for this book, from both a historical and an analytical point of view.Mauss looks at E. B. Tylor’s anthropological theory of magic, referring to his book entitled, ‘Primitive Culture’, about magical demonology and primitive animism. Mauss’s mainfocus of interest here is on ‘Sympathetic Magic’ and Tylor’s idea that the rituals some how played an important part in ‘The System of Survivals’ (Pg. 14) .Mauss then recognizes J. G Frazer’s hypothesis on magic, “Magic is the foundation of thewhole mystical and scientific universe of primitive man. It is the first stage in the evolution of the human mind” (Pg. 15) .The author then realizes that, “Magic is, therefore the foundation of the whole mysticaland scientific universe of primitive man”. And precedes to relate the following story:“Man thought that he was not only master of his own universe, but imagined he was master of all. He then saw that the universe was resisting him, and decided to bestow upon it great andmysterious powers, that he had once savored for himself. Once upon a time man himself wasGod, and now they populate the world, none will bend to his will. Man now finds himself bending his knee in worship of them” (Pg. 17) .Mauss brings in the ‘Psychology of Magic’ with Lehmann’s definition, “Magic, the practicing of superstitions, that is, those beliefs which are neither religious or scientific, that existin our society, in observable forms of spiritualism and occultism” (Pg. 17) .1 This is, the author realizes, where he and all the other writers on the topic of magic, havespoiled, the project at hand, with their prejudices. They just assumed there was a period of time,in the distant past where magic was in its ‘purest state’ and this thought got twisted into thinkingthat this ‘pure state’ must be ‘Sympathetic Magic’, ignoring all other practices of magic and the people that practice them. ‘Sympathetic Magic’ is just one small part of a much bigger picture (Pg.18) .In chapter 2, Mauss explores the ‘Definition of Magic’; he says, “Magic is verydistinguished and a clear definition can not be content by accepting facts as ‘magic’ simply because they have been called so by participants and observers…subjective view points are notscientific…a religion may claim the remnants of a former cult as ‘magical’ even though the ritesare now performed in a religious manner…magic should be used to refer to those things relatedto society as a whole…not those qualified as such by one portion of that society…in magic thereare officers, actions and representations…magicians are those persons who perform the magic…actions if never repeated can not be called magical…representation is the idea and belief thatrelates to a magical action…if the whole community does not believe in the group of actions,then they can not be called magical” (Pg. 22, 23) .After going over his data so far, the author classifies it as such: 1. Magical and Religiousrites often have different agents, which means they are not performed by the same person. 2.Consider where the magical ceremony is to be performed. Normally these are not done in templeor shrine; magic is usually in an open area, like a wood, away from domestic areas, in the dead of night. In some cases, it is performed in the shadowy corners and secret recesses of one’s ownhome. But mostly it is some remote – out of the way place. 3. Religious rites are performedopenly in full public view. 4. The Medicine man and the Bone-setter work openly, but mutter 2 their spells, cover up their actions and hide behind their performances. (He observes that thedifference in magic and religion is that the magician wishes to be set apart, even to other magicians he seems isolated and so isolation and secrecy are a big part of magic rites.) 5.Religious practices are predictable, prescribed and official. 6. Magic is unauthorized, abnormaland only used to fulfill a need. 7. Medical rites are useful and involve a degree of solemnity.(Once again Mauss understands that medicine men, bone-menders and magicians only serve a particular need and nothing else) (Pg. 28-30) .Chapter 3 is on ‘The Elements of Magic’, section one is called ‘The Magician’ – and isdefined as, “any practitioner of magic who may or may not be a professional…this includes: folk remedies, magical medicine, and domestic rites performed daily…agricultural cycles, huntingand fishing rites, and the which fills a common need, but is limited” (Pg. 31) .Mauss goes on to describe the ‘Qualities of a Magician’: 1. No one can be a magician atwill; it is acquired, inherited or possessed from birth. 2. They can be recognized because of certain physical peculiarities, by which he or she is branded, (something like the devil’s mark onthe body of a witch). In some cases a mark from a heightened emotional state might beconsidered. Also take into consideration a person with an unusual physical form or facialstructure. Maybe someone with a tick or spasm, or a person who just looks at a person in an oddway, these may make people think, they are being given the ‘evil eye’, which gives them reasonto fear or think suspiciously of them. 3. There are some magicians who cultivate these nervousconditions and they manifest them with greater force during ceremonies, along with trances andcataleptic fits. For some these states are natural, but for many it is faked. 4. Then there are theshowmen, these people use their infirmities and/or skills to be noticed by the public: jugglers,ventriloquists and tumblers; those with a limp, hump and even those that are blind; those with3 over – sensitivity (emotional or physical); and those with delusions of grandeur and believe theyare capable of having special powers (Pg. 33 – 35) .Section two is called ‘Action’ and these actions performed by a magician are called‘rites’. Mauss goes on to explain the complexity of these rites and their preparations: 1. Herbs,the various ways to chop them, when to pick and how. 2. The time and place for the ritual. 3.Materials and tools for the ritual. The specific role of Magician and Client. 5. The clothing to be worn…or should clothing be worn at all. 6. The state of mind for Magician and Client, of which, in some cases will be induced by drugsForms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies DAS PÉSSIMAS TRADUÇÕES DO LATIM CLASSICUS - HERITATIS VENENUM VENENO VINCITURI NATURA NATURAM VINCIT - O VENENO VENCE O VENENO A NATUREZA VENCE O NATURAL NATURALMENTE ....A CIRURGIA DOS POVOS DITOS PRIMITIVOS É ASSAZ DESENVOLVIDA E OS FEITICEIROS FORAM OS PRIMEIROS ENVENENADORES E CIRURGIÕES A MEDICINA É UM SUB-PRODUTO DA MAGIA

A General Theory of Magic


 Marcel Mauss was explaining the definition of magic and its elements. 
Magic seems to be considered as an element that is opposed to religion and science. However, on page 11 of the book it states magic includes, "a whole group of practices which we seem to compare with those of religion." I agree with this statement because magic and religion is pretty similar in some aspects. These aspects include faith and believing something that is of a higher being.



The discussion of magic and religion in the book reminds me of something that I learned last quarter in my sociology of religion class. In the book, "Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion" by Ronald Johnstone, it mentioned how magic is applied to religion. According to Johnstone, "Where magic is most likely to be practiced and condoned, people make little if any distinction between magic and religion or for that matter among scientific knowledge, religious knowledge, common sense knowledge, and magic. Knowledge is knowledge, be it scientific, religious or any other."

In the Johnstone's text it also contained a list of the similarities between Magic and Religion. Magic and religion has four similarities, according to Johnstone: 1) both are serious attempts to deal with and solve the basic problems people face; 2) both are based on faith in the existence and efficacy of powers that cannot be seen and can only be inferred by results; 3) both involve ritual activity, traditionally prescribed patterns of behavior; 4) both are bona fide elements of the group's larger culture and have well-defined norms and taboos to follow and observe. These similarities between magic and religion shows that both are not that much different after all. Both offer a supernatural answer when no solution is within reach by other means.

Religion is based on beliefs, rituals, and practices. Magic and religion both contain rituals. Both magic and religion can be found to be influential to all cultures. The following link is the wikipedia link that discuss more about magic and religion. It also mention how both are found in certain cultures and the aspect of it in artifacts and rituals 

An Analysis and Explanation of Magic’:
 Belief, The Effectiveness of the Ritual, Mana, and Collective States and Collective Forces
.Mauss states that he had gradually reduced his study of magic to an interest in‘Collective Forces’,
 he had found that they are active in both magic and religion. He believedthese forces could explain the whole of magic and its parts. He also mentions here that all knownmagic is continuous in nature and that its elements are just reflections of the same. Therepresentations seem to have sameness about them all throughout history. Magic is actually very simple, so the collective forces involved with them should also be as simple, which means themethods and use of those methods, by the magician, should once again be just as simple


.Magic is thought of in one aspect like religion, either you believe in it or you do not. Onenegative thought on the subject could ‘topple’ the whole idea, bringing suspicion. “Even in our own days, spirits do not let non – believers into their midst”



.Under the effectiveness of ritual the author relates the following: 1. Sympathetic formulaswill not be enough to represent the total idea behind ‘Sympathetic Magic’. 2. The idea of magical
properties, themselves, cannot explain the belief in magical facts. 3. Demonology is better suitedto dealing with rites that involve demons 
definition of ‘Mana’, “Mana is not simply a force, a being, it is also an action, a quality and a state of being…it is said that all things have ‘Mana’…itis seen to be something mysterious, that which is a spiritual action between sympathetic beings” 
“Magic is a social phenomenon that gives form and shape to those poorly coordinated or impotent gestures by which the needs of the individual are expressed…itdoes this through ritual and renders them effective…magic is the most childish of skills and theoldest…magic is nature” 
by his and others prejudicial viewpoints. Mauss’s idea of looking at magic from both a historical and an analytical perspective was well thought out. 
The book would bevery useful for anthropological research. It has been mentioned that Mauss’s book is basically a book that looks at magic of primitive culturES 
 the astonishing modernity of the mind of one of the century's greatest thinkers. The book offers a fascinating snapshot of magic throughout various cultures as well as deep sociological and religious insights still very much relevant today. 
At a period when art, magic and science appear to be crossing paths OF PURE MADNESS

dimecres, 29 d’abril de 2015

DA ORDEM DO TEMPLO - ALMANAQUE BRAZILEIRO 1943 Hierarquia da Ordem Grão-Mestre: Era o ÚLTIMO A IR PRÁ FOGUEIRA E O PRIMEIRO A RECEBER O SOLDO Comandante supremo da ordem tanto em assuntos diplomáticos como em assuntos militares. Só respondia perante a autoridade papal.CONVENANT CONVÉNIO AQUI SE LÊ Couvenant (assembleia plenária de todos os membros quando se trata de ir combater ou assistir a solenidades religiosas; mas é naturalmente uma assembleia restrita (elitista) para os membros mais próximos do topo hierárquico da Ordem quando se trata de discutir questões de total importância). O capítulo 98 sublinha que todos os irmãos do Templo devem obediência ao Mestre, enquanto este deve ser obediente ao seu couvent. Senescal: Conselheiro e diplomático, este substitui o grão-mestre aquando da sua ausência Marechal:Chefe encarregado pelas acções militares era o comandante do exercito templário. Chefe do reino de Jerusalém: Encarregado do reino de Jerusalém nos assuntos da Ordem era na sua essência um comandante militar Chefe da cidade de Jerusalém: Encarregado da cidade de Jerusalém era um comandante com deveres diplomáticos (responsável pela diplomacia com o rei de Jerusalém); responsável pelos templários dentro da cidade (respondia por estes). Chefe de Trípoli e de Antioquia: Encarregado de Trípoli e de Antioquia nos assuntos da Ordem era na sua essência um comandante militar e acumulava também funções diplomáticas. Chefes das Províncias Europeias: Encarregados das Províncias Europeias nos assuntos da Ordem eram na sua essência comandantes militares e acumulavam também funções diplomáticas. Comandantes (preceptores das províncias principais Europeias ou do Outremer) -Mestres: eram encarregados da Ordem em alguns reinos na esfera militar e diplomática.Na hierarquia respondiam ao Preceptor/Comandante nos assuntos (recrutamento,necessidade de tropas,logística da Ordem.) internos. Gualdim Pais foi um dos mestres para a Ordem nos três reinos. -Drapier: Os Drapiers estavam encarregados das roupas dos Templários. -Chefe da casa: Encarregado das diferentes casas(comendas,castelos,terras,fortalezas) Respondia perante o Mestre e o Preceptor. -Chefe dos cavaleiros: Encarregado do treino e observância dos Irmãos cavaleiros e Sargento do Mosteiro (muitas vezes este chefe já teria servido no Outremer) -Irmãos cavaleiros e Sargento do Mosteiro: Estes eram o núcleo da Ordem os que usavam a túnica branca com a cruz vermelha. Cada um equipado com os três cavalos e armas. O sargento era muitas vezes (apesar de hierarquicamente estar ao mesmo nível dos Irmãos cavaleiros) um cavaleiro impossibilitado de combater ou por doença, feridas de guerra, ou porque aquando do seu ingresso na Ordem foi destacado para esse lugar. -Turcoplier: Comandante dos Irmão-Sargento aquando da batalha. -Sub-marechal (um Sargento). Responsável pelo aprovisionamento das tropas e seus equipamentos. -Portador padrão.Padrão simples pertencia a um sargento escolhido carregá-lo.Portador do Beu-Sant era um dos Irmãos cavaleiros que o carregava.Qualquer um dos dois estava impedido de o usar como arma,deixá-lo cair para salvar a sua vida ou baixá-lo de modo a não ser um alvo. -Irmão-Sargento: Estes irmãos não necessitavam de uma ascendencia nobre usavam a túnica castanha e lutavam a pé com as armas típicas de qualquer infantaria.O que os distinguia de qualquer infantaria normal era a sua cor castanha com a cruz de lado. -Irmãos Rurais ("Feres Casalier") -Viviam nas comendas e trabalhavam a terra. -Irmão Assistente de Doentes ("Feres Infermiers").Irmão encarregado dos doentes,era uma espécie de supervisor e médico da saúde dos outros irmãos na Ordem -Turcopolos: Tropas locais do Outremer, eram mercenárias ou mesmo ofertas de senhores locais para apoio e defesa.AS FOLHAS E FLORES DA LARANJEIRA SÃO APROVEITADAS PARA A PREPARAÇÃO DE ESSÊNCIAS E DE ÁGUAS PERFUMADAS PARA AROMATIZAR XAROPES E POMADAS NA INDÚSTRIA DOS LICORES E EM MEDECINA MEDICINA MEDICANA, ETC. LIMÃO USADO NAS COSINHAS (AGORA ESCREVE-SE COZINHAS) NA PHARMACIA ....E OUTRAS COUSAS VÁRIAS O HÁBITO DE DAR GORGETAS VEM DE LONGE .....DAR POR TRÊS VEZES AO ANO UM PÃO DE CENTEIO AO PRETOR POR CADA VEZ QUE ELE LÁ FOSSE . Agaricus citrei Melliola Penzigi FERRUGEM OU FUMAGINA AQUILO QUE APARECE POR BAIXO DAS FOLHAS DA LARANJEIRA AS REVISTAS ANTIGAS E OS JORNAES CONTÊM UM MUNDO DE GENERALIDADES

SARGENTO DO CAPÍTULO TEMPLÁRIO

COMPRADO POR 2$50 EM 1974 OUTUBRO

VENDIDO EM 28? DE ABRIL

SEGUNDA-FEIRA NA BARATEIRA 

POR  12$50 E POSTO A 35 MÉL RÉIS 

CHAMA-SE A ISTO INFLAÇÃO 

APARENTEMENTE ERA LUNES 

 Irmão-Sargento: Estes irmãos não necessitavam de uma ascendencia nobre usavam a túnica castanha e lutavam a pé com as armas típicas de qualquer infantaria.


O que os distinguia de qualquer infantaria normal era a sua cor castanha com a cruz de lado.

-Irmãos Rurais ("Feres Casalier") -Viviam nas comendas e trabalhavam a terra.

NON NOBIS, DOMINE, NON NOBIS 

SED NOMINE 

dimarts, 28 d’abril de 2015

TRUE SEED PREDATORS ....SEED HARVESTING ANTS ..determine the spatio-temporal patterns of the foraging system of the different species; (2) to compare the specific patterns of seed removal and their dependence on seed density and seed size; (3) to evaluate the conse- quences of the different foraging systems of these harvesting ants on the redistribution of seeds of different plant species..IF THEY NOT EAT THE SEEDS SOMETIMES THEY GERMINATE SEED-DISPERSING GROUPS AND SEED-PREDATORS THAT IMPACT IN PLANT POPULATIONS Harvesting ants can affect the regeneration of plants through at least two different processes: seed remo- val and seed dispersal. We analyse the role of differ- ent foraging strategies of ants on patterns of seed removal and dispersal by three Messor species with considerable differences in their foraging systems. Messor capitatus workers rarely leave the nest in well-formed columns, while the other two species form foraging trails, with M. bouvieri forming temporary trails and M. barbarus foraging on a stable system of permanent foraging trails. Overall seed intake of M. capitatus colonies is consider- ably less than that of the two group-foraging species. There are also differences in the size of seeds collected: M. barbarus and M. capitatus harvest similar amounts of large and small seeds, while M. bouvieri harvests small seeds more intensely than large ones, due to the smaller size of the worker caste. The three Messor species differ in the percent of seed dropping of the different seed type and in the seed dispersal distance. Moreover, M. bouvieri and M. capitatus redistributed dropped seeds preferen- tially in bare soil and low sparse vegetation habitats, while M. barbarus redistributed seeds IN HIGH DENSITY HABITATS I S'POSE small-sized shrubs ( Pistacea lentiscus , Rosmarinus officinalis , Dorycnium pentaphyllum , Thymus vulgaris and Coronilla minima ). Three Messor species were found in the study site: M. capitatus , M. bouvieri and M. barbarus. These species have a broad Mediterranean distribution, mainly in open, sunny environments of the Western Mediterranean and North Africa (Bernard, 1968 , 1983 ). Messor bouvieri is mainly limited to coastal areas, while the other two spe- cies are more continental ( M. barbarus can be found up to 800 m and M. capitatus up to 1,100 m). These species differ in their physical caste systems: M. bouvieri has small-sized workers (range of head width: 0.9–2.1 mm), while M. barbarus and M. capitatus are highly poly- morphic species (range of head width: 0.9–3.3 mm in both cases). Their diet is mainly composed of seeds and, to a much lesser extent, other plant and animal remains

  individual-foragers search for and collect seeds independent of one another, and as a result, the whole area surrounding the colony is continuously and simultaneously searched; workers of group-foraging species tend to move together in well-defined columns, so that most of the searching and feeding activities are concentrated in a restricted portion of the area surrounding the nest.Harvester ants do not only collect large numbers of seeds, but they also change the spatial distribution of seeds 

Ants can play an important role in the dynamics of plant communities, acting as seed

dispersal agents in a variety of habitats

Most studies on seed

dispersal by ants have focused on seed dispersal of typical 

myrmecochorous plants whose elaiosome-bearing seedsare especially attractive to ants

 

Asymmetric interactions between plants and seed-harvesting ants in a Mediterranean pasture
interactions between plants and seed-harvesting ants in a Mediterranean pasture is reviewed in this paper. As previously reported in many studies on plant–herbivore interactions, ant–plant relationships are also asymmetric; plants had a larger impact on herbivore dynamics than vice versa. However, the asymmetry did not refer to population dynamics but rather to animal foraging strategies. Ants did not exert a significant influence on vegetation dynamics in terms of plant abundance. The main constraints underlying vegetation change were self-regulation and rainfall. In contrast, the structural characteristics and abundance of vegetation had a significant impact on several important features of food harvesting by ants. This influence was not only associated with their feeding requirements but also with their foraging AND OTHER ASEXUAL activities

THE 33 DEGREES OFMASONIC DIAMONDS IN THE XXIth CENTURY ROMAN FOX ...TSUKUBA PRODUCES IN THE 80'S THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL DIAMOND WITH 0,7 GRAMS TWO GRAMS OF CARBON WERE HELD AT 60Kbar of pressure AT 1500º C A GOOD COOKING FOR A WEEK AND A 30,000 TONNE PRESS MADE BY KOBE STEEL WAS PURCHASED BY U.S.S.R THAT GENERATE 100KBAR IN A VOLUME OF 1000 CUBIC CM THE OTHER TECHNOLOGY IS THE COATING OF SUBSTRATES WITH A LAYER OF DIAMOND COATINGS OF SILICON BY EXCITING A MIXTURE OF METHANE AND HYDROGEN WITH MICROWAVES THAT REACT IN THE PLASMA TO PRODUCE 5000 SILICON CARBIDE GASKETS PER YEAR . In addition to the countries listed in table 6, Germany and the Republic of Korea produced synthetic diamond (Norman Rohr, Warren Diamond Powder Co., Inc., oral commun., 1999), but specific data on their output could not be confirmed. China may have produced much more than the output shown in the table (Owers, 2000; Wilson Born, National Research Company, oral commun., 2001). In 2000, approximately 70% of the total global natural and synthetic industrial diamond output was produced in Ireland, Russia, and the United States. The dominance of synthetic diamond was even more pronounced, accounting for more than 90% of global production and consumption. The Ekati Mine, Canada’s first commercial diamond mine, completed its second full year of production. The Ekati Mine, located in the Northwest Territories, was a joint venture between BHP Diamonds Inc. (BHP) and Dia Met Minerals Ltd., but in June 2001, BHP purchased Dia Met Minerals Ltd. (BHP Diamonds Inc., 2001). Ekati has estimated reserves of 60.3 million metric tons (Mt) of ore in kimberlite pipes, containing 54.3 million carats of diamonds, and the mine life is projected to be 25 years. In 2000, Ekati produced 2.63 million carats (Luc Rombouts, Terraconsult bvba, May 2, 2001The utilitarian role of diamond was confined to lapidary products until industrialization created the first demand for diamond as an industrial tool for precision cutting and as abrasive material set in saw blades and drill bits. Few statistical data are available on abrasive diamond prior to 1911, when the United States imported $110,434 in diamond dust and bort, primarily from South Africa. After World War I, with the development of cemented carbide cutting tools, diamond was found to be the most effective medium for finishing and grinding the new ultrahard metal. This discovery rapidly increased the demand for industrial diamond. There was almost no U.S. diamond production until the early 1930s, when a relatively small diamond deposit near Murfreesboro, AR, was developed. By 1937, about two- thirds, by weight, of all diam ond sold each year was used for abrasive purposes, and U.S. imports of abrasive diamond, primarily from South Africa and Brazil, were valued at just under $7 million. World War II, with its increased use of hard-metal tools in the munitions industry, further increased the demand for industrial diamond. In 2000, synthetic diamond account ed for more than 90% of the industrial diamond market. The United States was the world’s largest market for industrial diamond, as well as the largest producer of synthetic industrial diamond, with estimated production of 248 million carats. In 2000, U.S. imports of an estimated 293 million carats of industrial diamond stone, bort, grit, dust, and powder, primarily from Belgium, Ireland, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, were valued at about $125 million. In 1955, General Electric Co. announced that its laboratories had succeeded in manufacturing synthetic diam ond from carbonaceous material. Economic commercial production of synthetic industrial diamond was achieved by the early 1960s. The manufacture and use of synthetic diamond steadily increased. By the end of the 1960s, domestic production of synthetic industrial diamond had increased to 13 million carats per year, and by the early 1980s, production had reached 57 million carats per year. In 2000, synthetic industrial diamond could be made in a relatively short time, and its performance in specific end-use applications exceeded that of natural diamond.As one of the world’s leading producers of synthetic industrial diamond, the United States accounted for an estimated output of 248 million car ats in 2000. Only two U.S. companies produced synthetic industrial diamond during the year—Mypodiamond, Inc., Gibbstown, NJ, and GE Superabrasives, Worthington, OH. General Electric Co., Fairfield, CT, which owns GE Superabrasives and other diamond manufacturing plants abroad, is one of the world’s largest producers of industrial diamond. In 2000, nine firms also manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. These companies were the Dennis Tool Co., Houston, TX; GE Superabrasives, Worthington, OH; Novatek Inc., Provo, UT; Phoenix Crystal Corp., Ann Arbor, MI; Precorp Inc., Provo, UT; SII Megadiamond Industries Inc., Provo, UT; Tempo Technology Corp., Somerset, NJ; U.S. Synthetic Corp., Orem, UT; and Western Diamond Products, Salt Lake City, UT. It is estimated that more than 10.1 million carats of used industrial diamond were recycled in the United States during 2000. Most of this material was recovered by recycling firms from used diamond drill bits, diamond tools, and other diamond-containing wastes. Additional diamond was recovered during the year from residues generated in the manufacture of PCD; most of this material was recovered for PCD from within the production operations of the PCD producing companies (Wilson Born, National Research Company, oral commun., 2001). The recovery and sale of industrial diamond was the principal business of four U.S. companies in 2000: Industrial Diamond Laboratory Inc., Bronx, NY; Industrial Diamond Powders Co., Pittsburgh, PA; International Diamond Services Inc., Houston, TX; and National Research Company, Fraser, MI. In addition to these companies, other domestic firms may have recovered industrial diamond in smaller secondary operations. Consumption The United States remained th e world’s largest market for industrial diamond in 2000. Based on production estimates and trade data, the apparent U.S. consumption of industrial diamond during the year increased to an estimated 484 million carats, which was a record high. This growth primarily reflects expanded output in many domestic industries where diamond is used. The major consuming industries of industrial diamond in the United States during 2000 were construction, machinery manufacturing, mining services (drilling), stone cutting/ polishing, and transportation systems (infrastructure and vehicles). Within these sectors, stone cutting and highway building/repair together made up the largest demand for industrial diamond. The manufacture of every automobile made in the United States consumes 1.5 carats of industrial diamond. Research and high technology uses included close- tolerance machining of ceram ic parts for the aerospace industry, heat sinks for electronic circuits, lenses for laser radiation equipment, and polishing silicon wafers and disk drives in the computer industry (Bailey and Bex, 1995). Diamond tools have myriad industrial functions. Diamond drilling bits and reaming shells are used principally for gas, mineral, and oil exploration. Other applications of diamond bits and reaming shells include foundation testing, masonry drilling, and inspecting concrete in various structures. The primary uses of point diamond tools are for dressing and truing grinding wheels and for cutting, machining, boring, and finishing; beveling glass for automobile windows is another application. Cutting dimension stone and cutting/grooving concrete in highway reconditioning are the major uses of diamond saws; other applicati ons include cutting composites and forming refractory shapes for furnace linings. Very fine diamond saws are used to slice brittle metals and crystals into thin wafers for electronic and electrical devices. Diamond wire dies are essential for high-speed drawing of fine wire, especially from hard, high-strength metals and alloys. The primary uses of diamond grinding wheels include edging plate glass, grinding dies, grinding parts for optical instruments, and sharpening and shaping carbide machine tool tips. Two types of natural diamond are used by industry: diamond stone (generally larger than 60 mesh/800 microns) and diamond bort (smaller, fragmented material). Diamond stone is employed primarily in drilling bits and reaming shells used by mining companies; it also is incorporated in single- or multiple- point diamond tools, diamond saws, diamond wheels, and diamond wire dies. Diamond bort is used for drilling bits and as a loose grain abrasive for polishing. Other tools that incorporate natural diamond include engraving points, glass cutters, bearings, and surgical instruments. Synthetic diamond grit and powder are used in diamond grinding wheels, saws, impregnated bits and tools, and as loose abrasive compounds for polishing. Diamond grinding wheels can be as much as 1 meter in diameter. Loose powders and compounds made of synthetic diamond for polishing are used primarily to finish optical surfaces, jewel bearings, gemstones, wiredrawing dies, cutting tools, and silicon wafers for computer chips. Hundreds of other products made from metals, ceramics, plastics, and glass also are finished with diamond powders and compounds. The use of polycrystalline diamond shapes (PDS) and polycrystalline diamond compacts (PDC) continues to increase for many of the applications cited above, including some of those that employ natural diamond. The use of PDS, PDC, and matrix-set synthetic diamond grit for drilling bits and reaming shells has increased in recent y ears. PDS and PDC are used in the manufacture of single- and multiple-point tools, and PDC is used in a majority of the diamond wire-drawing dies Natural industrial diamond normally has a more limited range of values. Its price varies from about $0.45 per carat for bort-size material to about $7 to $25 per carat for most stone. Synthetic industrial diamond has a much larger range of prices than natural diamond. Prices of synthetic diamond vary according to size, shape, crystallinity, and the absence or presence of metal coatings. In general, synthetic diamond prices for grinding and polishing range from as low as $0.10 per carat to $0.95 per carat. Strong and blocky material for sawing and drilling sells for $1.50 to $4.75 per carat. Large synthetic crystals with excellent structure for specific applications sell for several hundred dollars per carat. In 2000, the DNSC had awarded bids that ranged from $1.44 to $151.00 per carat for NDS diamond stone sold, with the average awarded bid being $33.80 per cara

Approximately one-third of the Ekati diamond production is
industrial-grade material (Darren Dyck, Senior Project
Geologist, BHP Diamonds Inc., oral commun., May 27, 2001).
Two other Canadian commercial diamond mines located in
the Northwest Territories are
expected to commence diamond
production in the first half of 2003. They are the Diavik
diamonds project and the Snap Lake diamond project. Diavik
has estimated reserves of 25.6 Mt of ore in kimberlite pipes,
containing 102 million carats of
diamonds, and the mine life is
projected to be 20 years. Diavik is expected to produce about
102 million carats of diamond at a
rate of 6 million carats per
year worth about $63 per carat (Diavik Diamond Mines Inc.,
2000, p. 10-12). The Snap Lake diamond project was acquired
by De Beers Canada Mining Inc. from Winspear Diamonds Inc.
and Aber Diamond Corporation in 2000. Snap Lake will be De
Beers’ first mine outside of southern Africa and the first
underground diamond mine in Canada. Snap Lake has
estimated reserves of 22.8 Mt of ore in a kimberlite dike,
containing 38.8 million carats of
diamonds, and the mine life is
projected to be 20 years or more (De Beers Canada Mining Inc.,
2000, Snap Lake diamond project
fact sheet, accessed June 13,
2001, at URL http://www.debeers
canada.com/files_new/snap/
infrastruct.html).
Diamond exploration is continuing in Canada, and many new
deposits are being found. There have been additional
discoveries in both the core and buffer zones of the Ekati lease.
At least 35 kimberlites have been discovered in north-central
Alberta, and 70 large kimberlites have been found in
Saskatchewan. Additional discoveries have been made in
Ontario and Quebec (Luc Rombouts, Terraconsult bvba, May 2,
2001, Diamond annual review—
2000, accessed June 19, 2001,
at URL http://www.terraconsult.be
/overview.htm). When the
Diavik and Snap Lake mines
begin production, Canada will be
producing at least 15% to 20% of the total world natural
diamond production. This will
make Canada a significant
producer of natural industrial diamond, as well as of gem-
quality diamond.

diumenge, 26 d’abril de 2015

THEORETICAL SOIL MECHANICS Erdbaumechanik UM SOLO DEVE FORNECER UM SUPORTE MECÂNICO MEDIANTE UMA ESPESSURA EFECTIVA ADEQUADA E ISTO TANTO SE APLICA A EDIFÍCIOS COMO AO RAÍZAME DAS PLANTAS QUE NECESSITAM DE UMA BOA CIRCULAÇÃO DE ÁGUA E AR NA RIZOSFERA ...FERTILIDADE DE UM SOLO VERSUS A SUA PRODUTIVIDADE CORRIGIR OU ELIMINAR DE FORMA ECONOMICAMENTE VIÁVEL OS FACTORES LIMITANTES À INSTALAÇÃO DE EDIFÍCIOS E DE PLANTAS...RELAÇÃO C/N MAIOR QUE 33 (ORGANIGRAMAS VÁRIOS UND SO WEITER) the theories of soil mechanics provide us only with a working hypothesis, because our knowledge of the average physical properties of the subsoil and of the orientation of the boundaries between the individual strata is always incomplete and often utterly inadequate. Nevertheless, from a practical point of view, the working hypothesis furnished by soil mechanics is as useful as the theory of structures in other branches of civil engineering

Soil is a construction material used in many structures, such as retaining walls, dams, and
levees. Soil is also a foundation material upon which structures rest. All structures,
regardless of the material from which they are constructed, ultimately rest upon soil or
rock. Hence, the load capacity and settlement behavior of foundations depend on the
c
haracter of the underlying soils, and on their action under the stress imposed by the
foundation. Based on this, it is appropriate to consider soil as a structural material, but it
differs from other structural materials in several important aspects.
Steel is a manufactured material whose physical and chemical properties can be very
accurately controlled during the manufacturing process. Soil is a natural material, which
occurs in infinite variety and whose engineering properties can vary widely from place to
place – even within the confines of a single construction project.
Geotechnical engineering
practice is devoted to the location of various soils encountered on a project, the
determination of their engineering properties, correlating those properties to the project
requirements, and the selection of the best available soils for use with the various
structural elements of the project.
Likewise, steel is a material whose properties generally remain unchanged during the life
of a structure. The properties of soils can change as the amount of moisture fluctuates and
other environmental influences vary. Soils can change significantly under load. For
example, loading can increase soil density and strength if pore pressure is allowed to
dissipate. If pore water cannot escape, loading may drastically weaken the soil because
the pore water, which has no shear strength, bears the load. These possible changes
require the geotechnical engineer to predict soil behavior under anticipated load – whether
the load is applied gradually or instantaneously
 
.OS NITRATOS SÃO POUCO TÓXICOS 
A DOSE LETAL ABSORVIDA PELAS MÃOS OU POR VIA....É BASTANTE ELEVADA O PROBLEMA É A DOSE DE NITRITOS PARA SER LETAL SER BAIXA....E O ARMAZENAMENTO LEVA A REDUÇÃO MICROBIANA E...PIMBA
 methemoglobinemia (methemoglobin >1%) include shortness of breath, cyanosis, mental status changes (~50%), headache, fatigue, exercise intolerance, dizziness and loss of consciousness. Patients with severe methemoglobinemia (methemoglobin >50%) may exhibit seizures, coma and death (>70%).
Healthy people may not have many symptoms with methemoglobin levels < 15%. 

However, patients with co-morbidities such as anemia, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, sepsis, or presence of other abnormal hemoglobin species (e.g. carboxyhemoglobin, sulfehemoglobin or sickle hemoglobin) may experience moderate to sevaere symptoms at much lower levels (as low as 5-8% TIANQSE DOENÇA AZUL NO GADO
AFECTADO PELAS PASTAGENS 
ALGURES NO SÉCULO XX

:
“. . ..

dijous, 23 d’abril de 2015

D. Cypriani Soarez Societatis Iesu De arte rethorica libri tres, ... Cicerone & Quintiliano praecipue deprompti / authore Cypriano Soarez ... Societatis Iesu. ...

CONIMBRICAE 1573 



SEMEAR SEMENTE BOTÂNICA DE BATATA SERIA O IDEAL CUSTA MENOS TRANSPORTAR 1 QUILO DE SEMENTES
QUE 200 QUILOS DE BATATAS A CORTAR AOS PEDAÇOS PRA PRODUZIR CLONES
MAS A SEMENTE DA BATATA DÁ FORMAS ÚNICAS E MUITO DIVERSIFICADAS E O PESSOAL GOSTA DE COMPRAR BATATAS UNIFORMES SEJA O PÚBLICO EM GERAL SEJA A INDÚSTRIA E É ESSE O PROBLEMA DO ENSINO EM PORTUGAL 
NÃO CONSEGUEM PENSAR ALÉM DAS SUAS ÁREAS LIMITADAS 
LEÊM UM ARTIGO COPIAM
E DÃO AULAS NO VAZIO ...CÓPIAS DAS AULAS DO ESTADO NOVO OU DO NOVO ESTADO A QUE CHEGÁMOS EM MENOS DE 10 ANOS DE INFLAÇÃO E AUMENTO DOS CUSTOS DOS MEIOS DE PRODUÇÃO
COM A PRÓXIMA ABERTURA AO ESPAÇO EUROPEU SEMEAR OU PLANTAR OU PRANTAR BATATAS DEIXARÁ DE SER RENTÁVEL PARA A MAIORIA DOS LABREGOS ....PLANTAR TONELADAS DE BATATAS QUE NEM LHES ASSEGURARÃO OS 22 OU 25 CONTOS DE SALÁRIO MÍNIMO
É TODO UM DESFASAMENTO DA REALIDADE QUE SERÁ FATAL
UMA MOTA OU YAMAMOTA É O PINÁCULO DESTA GERAÇÃO DE CARAMUJOS ARAÚJOS SABUJOS ARAUTOS DE FORÇAS 
PARTIDÁRIAS EM TUDO SIMILARES ÀS DA 1ª REPÚBLICA 
ECONOMIA DE TRANSPORTES ...E O RESTO
VENDER O PRODUTO ANTES QUE APODREÇA CUSTOS DE ARMAZENAMENTO SE NÃO SE VENDER
O FUTURO DAS TECNOLOGIAS NÃO APLICÁVEIS 
ATÉ SE PODIAM COMER RATOS DE LABORATÓRIO OU PROFESSORES DO NADA POR ESTA ORDEM DE IDEIAS 
OS TABUS ALIMENTARES PODIAM IR PRÓ SOYLENT GREEN NÉ

 IHS 145000$00 COM MUITA CAGADELA DE MOSCA E DE OUTROS BICHOS, ENCONTRADO NO LIXO UNIVERSITÁRIO EM MAU ESTADO VENDIDO POR 3 CONTOS E QUINHENTOS RECUPERADO PELO Nº XLIV QUE O REVENDEU POR 85 CONTOS ISENTO DE IMPOSTOS O LIXO RECICLADO RENDE ...NÃO RENDE É PRA TODOS 
É TODA UMA HIERARQUIA DE RENDIMENTOS 16 QUILOS DE JORNAIS E REVISTAS DO SÉCULO XIX E XX NÃO ENCONTRARAM COMPRADOR CERCA DE 8 QUILOS VENDIDOS PARA FAZER COLAGENS POR 130$00, O QUE NESTE ANO DE PRÉ-ADESÃO À CEE VALE VALE ...UM GALÃO E UM CACHORRO NA CANTINA QUE É UMA MINA PRÓ ARRENDATÁRIO

Voyage pittoresque des environs de Paris, ou, Description des maisons royales, chateaux & autres lieux de plaisance, situés à quinze lieues aux environs de cette ville by Dézallier d'Argenville, Antoine-Nicolas, d. 1794; Privés, comme nous le femmes 5 d'une partie des avantages dont la Nature a favorifé ilialie, nous nous (bmmes retournés du côté dcTArt. Avec fon fecours, nos jardins ont acquis plus de craicté , plus de fraîcheur 6^^ plus de verdure. Quel contrafte ingénieux n*y font pas nos bois ôi nos potai^ers ! L'agréable fuccèdent par leur réunion , la variété de leurs scènes multiplie nos plaisirs La chapelle placée à l'extiémiré de l'aîle gauche , dans un pavillon caité en dehors ôc circulaire en dedans , eft du defîin de Perrault, Ses pilaftres d'ordre Corinthien , portent un plafond cintré en forme de coupe , peint à frefque par le Brun : le fujet eil l'Ancienne Loi accomplie par la Nouvelle, On y voie Dieu le Père dans fa GloirCj qui paroît proférer ces paroles : C'eji ici mon Fils bkn-aïmé , écoute-^ - le\ Plufieurs Anges font diftribués autoui du plafond : les uns jouent des inftrumens , les autres tiennent un encenfoir , le chandelier , l'Arche d'Alliance 5 un bouclier , une caifolette 3 un papier de mufique. Ceux-ci s'em- ^ . braiTent en figne d'union , ceux-là font en extafe. Sur une baluftrade feinte qui règne autour de ce plafond , paroiiïent divers attributs de rAîicienm Loi. Gérard Audran a gravé ce beau ; morceau en cinq pièces.

Le Bosquet de Marly. 

On trouve d'abord un Centaure dans 
une petite falle , enfuire un grouppe 
de marbre représentant les Arts relevés par le Temps , une Circé ^ de 
Vénus aux belles {qïTqs d'après l'An- 
rique , par Bar rois. Thierry y a ajouté 
une draperie avec tant d'art , qu'il eft 
difficile de s'en apercevoir : il lui a 
donné de la modeitie fans nuire à fa 
beauté. 

Sur la gauche vous verrez le petit 
Faune , dans urie falle au-deiTus deux 
vafes de porphyre , Semélé de Milon , 
deux Termes anticmes, & un grouppe 
de marbre d'un grand prix : ce grouppe 
repréfenre deux enFans qui jouent 
avec une chèvre 

UM FRIO INTENSO QUE DISPENSO NUMA POALHA QUE COALHA QUAL MORTALHA DE NEVOEIRO E DEUS VOS VALHA Ó CANALHA ----o paulo quintela que escrevia com o artolas doutor da tal tela é o avô do artolas a que te colas nas esquinas das escolas?... UM LIVRO QUE QUANTO MAIS VELHO E MIJADO POR GERAÇÕES DE RATOS MAIS VALIA ATINGINDO OS 210000$ 60 ANOS DEPOIS DE SER PUBLICADO Miúra um touro que enfrenta a morte na tourada e não percebe esse jogo fatal em que o meteram, Vicente, corvo que se insurge contra o criador e demonstra a obstinação e a vontade maior de sair da arca de noé e descobrir terra, e homens e mulheres que são bestas puras, como Madalena que dá à luz um filho, na serra negra e vazia, e, vendo-o morto, enterra-o e prossegue viagem como uma loba. Numa mistura chocante entre a fereza dos homens e a introspeção de bichos, Torga devolve-nos a nossa imagem primitiva: Somos todos carne da mesma lavra, feitos do mesmo pó, da mesma verdade, das mesmas questões eternas. O nosso dever é voltar ao éden, ao lugar primitivo onde somos livres dos constrangimentos sociais, das regras, onde somos feras sagradaso retrato fiel do viver trasmontano; uma vida de suor e lágrimas, por entre escolhos e lobos, mas sempre repleta daquela alegria que só o sofrimento pode justificar: a alegria de ser, de viver em comunhão total com a natureza, em fusão permanente com os elementos. Miguel Torga fez desta obra um testemunho impar da união natural entre os Homens e os Bichos – a simbiose da vida. No meio dos dois, a terra, o traço que lhes dá vida. No trabalho, nas paixões e nas dores, os bichos compartilham com os homens as esperanças e as desgraças.

E o cavalo do tempo a galopar…
Ninguém pode detê-lo.
Vê-lo,
É ver, a sonhar,
Um relâmpago a rasgar
O céu dum pesadelo



Lastro
Depois da noite, o dia, a claridade!
A benção de acordar
E de ter vida!
Olhar
E descobrir a eternidade
Em cada contingência renascida.

A música concreta dos ruídos…
A frescura dos frutos orvalhados…
O perfume da brisa que perpassa…
E os sentidos
Felizes, excitados
Como podengos que farejam caça.
Assim dentro de nós o sol nascesse
E apagasse
Nessa madrugada,
A teimosa e penosa consciência
Da existência
Passada!

Calendário
Pregados na parede da memória,
Os dias do passado
Amarelecem.
Folhas mortas dum bloco de emoções,
Solto-as ao vento da melancolia.
Seis de Outubro, um de Abril,
Ano tal, ano tal, e a mais bela manhã primaveril
Desfeita numa pústula outonal!

A inútil persistência de viver!
O erro de lutar
Por qualquer duração!
Mesmo antes do
Letes
conhecido,
Todo o sonho,
Ou gemido,
Ou alegria,
É uma data vazia
No sepulcro do tempo decorrido.


Colóquio

Duvida das palavras…
Nunca disseram nada.
Palmeiras no deserto
Da expressão,
O mais que dão
É sombra aos sentimentos,
Nos momentos
Em que o sol é uma cruz de expiação.


Ouve o silêncio – a voz universal.
Só ele é o verdadeiro confidente
Do coração de tudo.
Poeta angustiado
E penitente,
Mudo
A teu lado
É que eu sou transparente…
Encontro
Rasgo todos os véus da minha vida,
Como quem despe a noiva em pensamento.
Eterno adolescente, desatento
Aos adultos conselhos da razão,
Violento
O pudor que lhe vela a imperfeição.

Quero a sua nudez desencantada,
Bosque sem folhas, onde a claridade
Desça à raiz das sombras e as desfaça.
Quero ver a pureza
Da impureza,
A intima brancura da desgraça.
E descubro o que sou no que ela é:
O triste dia a dia
Deste absurdo humano:
Erguida pelo vento da loucura,
Uma onda à procura
De oceano.


Viagem
Aparelhei o barco da ilusão
E reforçei a fé de marinheiro.
Era longe o meu sonho, e traiçoeiro
O mar…
(Só nos é concedida
Esta vida
Que temos;
E é nela que é preciso
Procurar
O velho paraíso
Que perdemos).

Prestes, larguei a vela
E disse adeus ao cais, à paz tolhida.
Desmedida,
A revolta imensidão
Transforma dia a dia a embarcação
Numa errante e alada sepultura…
Mas corto as ondas sem desanimar.
Em qualquer aventura,
O que importa é partir, não é chegar.
E os poemas surgem-nos ordenados no livro como um olhar de balanço numa simbólica:

Câmara Ardente
Serve-se no presente
Dum símbolo futuro…
Um frio prematuro
De mortalha
Coalha
A inspiração
Que animava o seu canto.
Não morreu. Mas enquanto
A vida lhe negar um novo sol,
Mais quente e mais fecundo,
Não vislumbra outra imagem
Da intima paisagem
Deste mundo…



Solidão
Pouco a pouco, vamos ficando sós, Esquecidos ou lembrados Como nomes de ruas secundárias Que a custo recordamos Para subscritar A urgência de um beijo epistolar Ainda inutilmente apetecido. Mortos sem ter morrido, Lúcidos defuntos, Vemos a vida pertencer aos outros. E descobrimos, na maneira deles, Que nada somos Para além do seu dissimulado Enfado Paciente. E que lá fora, diariamente, Conforme arde no céu, O sol aquece Ou arrefece Os versáteis e alheios sentimentos. E que fomos riscados No rol da humanidade A que já não pertencemos De maneira nenhuma. E que tudo o que em nós era claridade Se transformou em bruma.
Coimbra 20 de Julho de 1992
Termo
Pára, imaginação! Não há mais aventura, nem poesia. A hora é de finados, Com versos apagados Na lareira onde a fogueira ardia.
Pára, é a lei. Agora é só cansaço desiludido E memória teimosa que entristece O nada que acontece E o muito acontecido.
Pára, porque findou O tempo intemporal Do amor e da graça concedida A quem nele, no seu barro original, Modela a própria vida.
Coimbra, 3 de Novembro de 1993
Requiem por Mim
Aproxima-se o fim. E tenho pena de acabar assim, Em vez de natureza consumada, Ruína humana. Inválido do corpo E tolhido da alma. Morto em todos os órgãos e sentidos. Longo foi o caminho e desmedidos Os sonhos que dele tive. Mas ninguém vive Contra as leis do destino. E o destino não quis Que eu me cumprisse como porfiei, E caísse de pé, num desafio. Rio feliz a ir de encontro ao mar Desaguar, E, em largo oceano, eternizar O seu esplendor torrencial de rio.