dissabte, 30 de maig de 2015

ANCOR TI PUÓ NEL MONDO RENDER FAMA CH'EL VIVE E LUNGA VITA ch’el vive, e lunga vita ancor aspetta se Innanzi tempo grazia a sé nol chiama

The Inferno: Canto XXXI, by Dante Alighieri

Canto XXXI: Summary:
The Central Pit of Malebolge, The Giants; Dante to the reader describes the scene, “Here it was less than night and less than day; my eyes could make out little through the gloom, but I heard the shrill note of a trumpet bray louder than any thunder. As if by force, it drew my eyes; I stared into the gloom along the path of the sound back to its source. After the bloody rout when Charlemagne had lost the band of Holy Knights, Roland blew no more terribly for all his pain.”

Virgil takes Dante by the hand, and says, “The better to prepare you for strange truth, let me explain those shapes you see ahead: they are not towers but giants. They stand in the well from the naval down; and stationed round its bank they mount guard on the final pit of Hell.”

Dante to the reader describes his feelings, “Just as a man in a fog that starts to clear begins little by little to piece together the shapes the vapor crowded from the air―so, when those shapes grew clearer as I drew across the darkness to the central brink, error fled from me; and my terror grew.”

Dante to the reader describes the scene, “For just as Montereggione the great towers crown the encircling wall; so the grim giants whom Jove still threatens when the thunder roars raised from the rim of stone about that well the upper halves of their bodies, which loomed up like turrets through the murky air of Hell.”

Dante to the reader describes the giants, “His face, it seemed to me, was quite as high and wide as the bronze pine cone in St. Peter’s with the rest of him proportioned accordingly: so that the bank, which made an apron for him from the waist down, still left so much exposed that three Frieslanders standing on the rim, one on another, could not have reached his hair; for to that point at which men’s capes are buckled, thirty good hand-spans of brute bulk rose clear.”

Canto XXXI: Analysis:
The Central Pit of Malebolge, The Giants; Dante to the reader regarding Virgil explains with an analogy, “One and the same tongue had first wounded me so that the blood came rushing to my cheeks, and then supplied the soothing remedy. Just so, as I have heard, the magic steel of the lance that was Achilles’ and his father’s could wound at a touch, and, at another, heal” (1-6).

“Achilles’ Lance” is a magic lance left to Achilles by Peleus, his father. In Ovid’s Metamorphoses, XIII, 171 ff., it describes Achilles’ lance. Sonneterrs of Dante’s time made frequent metaphoric use of this lance. For example, similar to the lance’s ability to cure and heal, so could the lady’s look destroy with love and with a kiss make whole.

Dante to the reader describes the scene, “Here it was less than night and less than day; my eyes could make out little through the gloom, but I heard the shrill note of a trumpet bray louder than any thunder. As if by force, it drew my eyes; I stared into the gloom along the path of the sound back to its source. After the bloody rout when Charlemagne had lost the band of Holy Knights, Roland blew no more terribly for all his pain” (10-18).

“Roland” was the nephew of Charlemagne (17). Roland was the hero of the French epic poem, the Chanson de Roland. Roland protected the rear of Charlemagne’s column on the return march through the Pyrenees from a war against the Saracens. When Roland was attacked he was too proud to blow his horn for help, but as he was dying he blew such a prodigious blast that he heard Charlemagne eight miles away. The “Holy Knights” are a sworn band of men at arms (17).

“As [Dante] stared through that obscurity, [he] saw what seemed a cluster of great towers” in the Central Pit of Malebolge (19-20). Whereat [Dante] cried: “[Virgil], what is this city?” (21) Virgil to Dante replied, “You are still too far back in the dark to make out clearly what you think you see; it is natural that you should miss the mark: You will see clearly when you reach that place how much your eyes mislead you at a distance; I urge you, therefore, to increase your pace” (22-27).

Virgil takes Dante by the hand, and says, “The better to prepare you for strange truth, let me explain those shapes you see ahead: they are not towers but giants. They stand in the well from the naval down; and stationed round its bank they mount guard on the final pit of Hell” (29-33).

Dante to the reader describes his feelings, “Just as a man in a fog that starts to clear begins little by little to piece together the shapes the vapor crowded from the air―so, when those shapes grew clearer as I drew across the darkness to the central brink, error fled from me; and my terror grew” (34-39).

Dante to the reader describes the scene, “For just as Montereggione the great towers crown the encircling wall; so the grim giants whom Jove still threatens when the thunder roars raised from the rim of stone about that well the upper halves of their bodies, which loomed up like turrets through the murky air of Hell” (40-45).

“Montereggione is a castle in Val d’Elsa near Siena. In 1213, Monterggione was built. The castles walls had a circumference of more than half a kilometer and were crowned by fourteen great towers, most of which are now destroyed.

Dante to the reader describes as he steps closer to the giants, “I had drawn close enough to one already to make out the great arms along his sides, the face, the shoulders, the breast, and most of the belly. Nature, when she destroyed the last exemplars on which she formed those beasts, surely did well to take such executioners from Mars. And if she has not repented the creation of whales and elephants, the thinking man will see in that her justice and discretion: for where the instrument of intelligence is added to brute power and evil will, mankind is powerless in its own defense” (46-57).

Dante to the reader describes the giants, “His face, it seemed to me, was quite as high and wide as the bronze pine cone in St. Peter’s with the rest of him proportioned accordingly: so that the bank, which made an apron for him from the waist down, still left so much exposed that three Frieslanders standing on the rim, one on another, could not have reached his hair; for to that point at which men’s capes are buckled, thirty good hand-spans of brute bulk rose clear” (58-66).

“The bronze pine cone in St. Peter’s” was originally part of a fountain (59). During Dante’s time, the bronze pine cone stood in front of the Basilica of St. Peter. However, the bronze pine cone is now inside the Vatican. The bronze pine cone is nearly thirteen feet high, but shows signs of mutilation. Therefore, at one time the bronze pine cone was taller. “Frieslanders” are men of Friesland, and were considered the tallest in Europe (63). “Thirty good hand-spans” refers to the spread of an open hand (66). According to the Dante Society edition of the “Comedy,” it equates ten palms to be four meters or 158 inches. However, 15.8 inches seems to be an excessive hand span.

The Brute bellowed chant, “Rafel mahee amek zabi almit” (67). Virgil to the Brute screamed in his direction: “Babbling fool, stick to your horn and vent yourself with it when rage or passion stir your stupid soul. Feel there around your neck, you muddle-head, and find the cords; and there’s the horn itself, there on your overgrown chest” (70-75). Virgil to Dante regarding the Brute says, “His very babbling testifies the wrong he did on earth: he is Nimrod, through whose evil mankind no longer speaks a common tongue. Waste no words on him: it would be foolish. To him all speech is meaningless; as his own, which no one understands, is simply gibberish” (76-81).

“Nimrod” was the first king of Babylon (77). Nimrod was supposed to have built the Tower of Babel. Nimrod was punished by the confusion of his own tongue and lack of understanding. The Tower of Babel was not built for worship and praise of Yahweh, but instead was dedicated to the glory of man to make a name for the builder, Nimrod. This displeased Yahweh. Yahweh is the personal name for God in the Hebrew Bible.

Virgil and Dante moved on, “Bearing left along the pit, and a crossbow-sho0t away we found the next one, an even huger and more savage spirit” (82-84). Dante to the reader contemplates and describes, “What master could have bound so gross a beast I cannot say, but he had his right arm pinned behind his back, and the left across his breast by an enormous chain that wound about him from the neck down, completing five great turns before it spiraled down below the rim” (85-90).

Virgil to Dante says, “This piece of arrogance dared try his strength against the power of Jove; for which he is rewarded as you see. He is Ephialtes, who made the great endeavour with the other giants who alarmed the Gods; the arms he raised then, now are bound forever” (91-96). Please note: “Ephialtes” is the son of Neptune and Iphimedia (94). With his brother, Otus, Ephialtes warred against the Gods striving to pile Mt. Ossa on Mt. Olympus, and Mt. Pelion on Mt. Ossa. Apollo restored order by killing the two brothers, Ephialtes and Otus.

Dante to Virgil replies, “Were it possible, I should like to take with me the memory of seeing the immeasurable Briareus” (97-99). Please note: “Briareus” is another giant who rose against the Olympian Gods (99). Briareus is the son of Uranus and Tellus. In the “Aeneid,” Virgil speaks of Briareus as having a hundred arms and fifty hands.

Virgil to Dante explains, “Nearer to hand, you may observe Antaeus who is able to speak to us, and is not bound. It is he will set us down in Cocytus, the bottom of all guilt. The other hulk stands far beyond our road. He too, is bound and looks like this one, but with a fiercer sulk” (100-105).

“Antaeus” is the son of Neptune and Tellus (100). In battle, Antaeus strength grew each time he touched the earth. Antaeus was invincible until Hercules killed him by lifting him over his head and strangling him in mid-air. In “Pharsalia” by Lucan, Antaeus great lion-hunting feat in the valley of Zama is described. During a later era, in the valley of Zama, that is where Scipio defeated Hannibal. Antaeus did not join in the rebellion against the gods, and therefore, Antaeus is not chained.

Dante to the reader describes the environment, “No earthquake in the fury of its shock ever seized a tower more violently, than Ephialtes, hearing, began to rock. Then I dreaded death as never before; and I think I could have died for very fear had I not seen what manacles he wore. [Virgil and Dante] left the monster, and not far from him [they] reached Antaeus, who to his shoulders alone soared up a good five ells above the rim” (106-114).

Virgil to Antaeus request, “O soul who once in Zama’s fateful vale―where Scipio became the heir of glory when Hannibal and all his troops turned tail―took more than a thousand lions for your prey; and in whose memory many still believe the sons of earth would yet have won the day had you joined with them against High Olympus―do not disdain to do us a small service, but set us down where the cold grips Cocytus. Would you have us go to Tityos or Typon?―this man can give you what is longed for here: therefore do not refuse him, but bend down. For he can still make new your memory: he lives, and awaits long life, unless Grace call him before his time to his felicity” (115-129).

“Cocytus” is the final pit of Hell (123). “Tityos or Typhon” are the sons of Tellus (124). Tityos and Typhon offended Jupiter, who had them hurles into the crater of Etna. Below the crater of Etna, is where Lake Tartarus was supposed to lie.

Dante watches Antaeus without delay reach out the hands which Hercules felt, and raise Virgil. Virgil to Dante calls, “Come, and I will hold you safe” (134). Virgil took Dante in his arms and held him. Dante makes a metaphor to describe the situation, “The way the Carisenda seems to one who looks up from the learning side when clouds are going over it from that direction, making the whole tower seem to topple―so Antaeus seemed to me in the fraught moment when I stood clinging, watching them below as he bent down; while I with heart and soul wished we had gone some other way, but gently he set us down inside the final hole whose ice holds Judas and Lucifer in its grip. Then straightened like a mast above a ship” (136-146). Please note: In order to understand this metaphor, the reader needs to know that “Carisenda” is a leaning tower of Bologna (136).

Canto XXXI: English Translation:
(1) One and the same tongue had first wounded me
(2) So that the blood came rushing to my cheeks,
(3) And then supplied the soothing remedy.

(4) Just so, as I have heard, the magic steel
(5) Of the lance that was Achilles’ and his father’s
(6) Could wound at a touch, and, at another, heal.

(7) We turned our backs on the valley and climbed from it
(8) To the top of the stony bank that walls it round,
(9) Crossing in silence to the central pit.

(10) Here it was less than night and less than day;
(11) My eyes could make out little through the gloom,
(12) But I heard the shrill note of a trumpet bray

(13) Louder than any thunder. As if by force,
(14) It drew my eyes; I stared into the gloom
(15) Along the path of the sound back to its source.

(16) After the bloody rout when Charlemagne
(17) Had lost the band of Holy Knights, Roland
(18) Blew no more terribly for all his pain.

(19) And as I stared through that obscurity,
(20) I saw what seemed a cluster of great towers,
(21) Whereat I cried: “Master, what is this city?”

(22) And he: “You are still too far back in the dark
(23) To make out clearly what you think you see;
(24) It is natural that you should miss the mark:

(25) You will see clearly when you reach that place
(26) How much your eyes mislead you at a distance;
(27) I urge you, therefore, to increase your pace.”

(28) Then taking my hand in his, my Master said:
(29) “The better to prepare you for strange truth,
(30) Let me explain those shapes you see ahead:

(31) They are not towers but giants. They stand in the well
(32) From the navel down; and stationed round its bank
(33) They mount guard on the final pit of Hell.”

(34) Just as a man in a fog that starts to clear
(35) Begins little by little to piece together
(36) The shapes the vapor crowded from the air―

(37) So, when those shapes grew clearer as I drew
(38) Across the darkness to the central brink,
(39) Error fled from me; and my terror grew.

(40) For just as at Montereggione the great towers
(41) Crown the encircling wall; so the grim giants
(42) Whom Jove still threatens when the thunder roars

(43) Raised form the rim of stone about that well
(44) The upper halves of their bodies, which loomed up
(45) Like turrets through the murky air of Hell.

(46) I had drawn close enough to one already
(47) To make out the great arms along his sides,
(48) The face, the shoulders, the breast, and most of the belly.

(49) Nature, when she destroyed the last exemplars
(50) On which she formed those beasts, surely did well
(51) To take such executioners from Mars.

(52) And if she has not repented the creation
(53) Of whales and elephants, the thinking man
(54) Will see in that her justice and discretion:

(55) For where the instrument of intelligence
(56) Is added to brute power and evil will,
(57) Mankind is powerless in its own defense.

(58) His face, it seemed to me, was quite as high
(59) And wide as the bronze pine cone in St. Peter’s
(60) With the rest of him proportioned accordingly:

(61) So that the bank, which made an apron for him
(62) From waist down, still left so much exposed
(63) That three Frieslanders standing on the rim,

(64) One on another, could not have reached his hair;
(65) For to that point at which men’s capes are buckled,
(66) Thirty good hand-spans of brute bulk rose clear.

(67) “Rafel mahee amek zabi almit,”
(68) Began a bellowed chant from the brute mouth
(69) For which no sweeter psalmody was fit.

(70) And my Guide in his direction: “Babbling fool,
(71) Stick to your horn and vent yourself with it
(72) When rage or passion stir your stupid soul.

(73) Feel there around your neck, you muddle-head,
(74) And find the cord; and there’s the horn itself,
(75) There on your overgrown chest.” To me he said:

(76) “His very babbling testifies the wrong
(77) He did non earth: he is Nimrod, through whose evil
(78) Mankind no longer speaks a common tongue.

(79) Waste no words on him: it would be foolish.
(80) To him all speech is meaningless; as his own,
(81) Which no one understands, is simple gibberish.”

(82) We moved on, bearing left along the pit,
(83) And a crossbow-shot away we found the next one,
(84) An even huger and more savage spirit.

(85) What master could have bound so gross a beast
(86) I cannot say, but he had his right arm pinned
(87) Behind his back, and the left across his breast

(88) By an enormous chain that wound about him
(89) From the neck down, completing five great turns
(90) Before it spiraled down below the rim.

(91) “This piece of arrogance,” said my Guide to me,
(92) “dated try his strength against the power of Jove;
(93) For which he is rewarded as you see.

(94) He is Ephialtes, who made the great endeavour
(95) With the other giants who alarmed the Gods;
(96) The arms he raised then, now are bound forever.”

(97) “Were it possible, I should like to take with me,”
(98) I said to him, “the memory of seeing
(99) The immeasurable Briareus.” And he:

(100) “Nearer to hand, you may observe Antaeus
(101) Who is able to speak to us, and is not bound.
(102) It is he will set us down in Cocytus,

(103) The bottom of all guilt. The other hulk
(104) Stands far beyond our road. He too, is bound
(105) And looks like this one, but with a fiercer sulk.”

(106) No earthquake in the fury of its shock
(107) Ever seized a tower more violently,
(108) Than Ephialtes, hearing, began to rock.

(109) Then I dreaded death as never before;
(110) And I think I could have died for very fear
(111) Had I not seen what manacles he wore.

(112) We left the monster, and not far from him
(113) We reached ANtaeus, who to his shoulders alone
(114) Soared up a good five ells above the rim.

(115) “O soul who once in Zama’s fateful vale―
(116) Where Scipio became the heir of glory
(117) When Hannibal and all his troops turned tail―

(118) Took more than a thousand lions for your prey;
(119) And in whose memory many still believe
(120) The sons of earth would yet have won the day

(121) Had you joined with them against High Olympus―
(122) Do not disdain to do us a small service,
(123) But set us down where the cold grips Cocytus.

(124) Would you have us go to Tityos or Typhon?―
(125) This man can give you what is longed for here:
(126) Therefore do not refuse him, but bend down.

(127) For he can still make new your memory:
(128) He lives, and awaits long life, unless Grace call him
(129) Before his time to his felicity.”

(130) Thus my Master to that Tower of Pride;
(131) And the giant without delay reached out the hands
(132) Which Hercules had felt, and raised my Guide.

(133) Virgil, when he felt himself so grasped,
(134) Called to me: “Come, and I will hold you safe.”
(135) And he took me in his arms and held me clasped.

(136) The way the Carisenda seems to one
(137) Who looks up from the learning side when clouds
(138) Are going over it from that direction,

(139) Making the whole tower seem to topple―so
(140) Antaeus seemed to me in the fraught moment
(141) When I stood clinging, watching from below

(142) As he bent down; while I with heart and soul
(143) Wished we had gone some other way, but gently
(144) He set us down inside the final hole

(145) Whose ice holds Judas and Lucifer in its grip.
(146) Then straightened like a mast above a ship.

Canto XXXI: Italian Manuscript:

(1) Una medesma lingua pria mi morse,
(2) sì che mi tinse l’una e l’altra guancia,
(3) e poi la medicina mi riporse;

(4) così od’ io che solea far la lancia
(5) d’Achille e del suo padre esser cagione
(6) prima di trista e poi di buona mancia.

(7) Noi demmo il dosso al misero vallone
(8) su per la ripa che ’l cinge dintorno,
(9) attraversando sanza alcun sermone.

(10) Quiv’ era men che notte e men che giorno,
(11) sì che ’l viso m’andava innanzi poco;
(12) ma io senti’ sonare un alto corno,

(13) tanto ch’avrebbe ogne tuon fatto fioco,
(14) che, contra sé la sua via seguitando,
(15) dirizzò li occhi miei tutti ad un loco.

(16) Dopo la dolorosa rotta, quando
(17) Carlo Magno perdé la santa gesta,
(18) non sonò sì terribilmente Orlando.

(19) Poco portäi in là volta la testa,
(20) che me parve veder molte alte torri;
(21) ond’ io: «Maestro, dì, che terra è questa?».

(22) Ed elli a me: «Però che tu trascorri
(23) per le tenebre troppo da la lungi,
(24) avvien che poi nel maginare abborri.

(25) Tu vedrai ben, se tu là ti congiungi,
(26) quanto ’l senso s’inganna di lontano;
(27) però alquanto più te stesso pungi».

(28) Poi caramente mi prese per mano
(29) e disse: «Pria che noi siam più avanti,
(30) acciò che ’l fatto men ti paia strano,

(31) sappi che non son torri, ma giganti,
(32) e son nel pozzo intorno da la ripa
(33) da l’umbilico in giuso tutti quanti».

(34) Come quando la nebbia si dissipa,
(35) lo sguardo a poco a poco raffigura
(36) ciò che cela ’l vapor che l’aere stipa,

(37) così forando l’aura grossa e scura,
(38) più e più appressando ver’ la sponda,
(39) fuggiemi errore e cresciemi paura;

(40) però che, come su la cerchia tonda
(41) Montereggion di torri si corona,
(42) così la proda che ’l pozzo circonda

(43) torreggiavan di mezza la persona
(44) li orribili giganti, cui minaccia
(45) Giove del cielo ancora quando tuona.

(46) E io scorgeva già d’alcun la faccia,
(47) le spalle e ’l petto e del ventre gran parte,
(48) e per le coste giù ambo le braccia.

(49) Natura certo, quando lasciò l’arte
(50) di sì fatti animali, assai fé bene
(51) per tòrre tali essecutori a Marte.

(52) E s’ella d’elefanti e di baleen
(53) non si pente, chi guarda sottilmente,
(54) più giusta e più discreta la ne tene;

(55) ché dove l’argomento de la mente
(56) s’aggiugne al mal volere e a la possa,
(57) nessun riparo vi può far la gente.

(58) La faccia sua mi parea lunga e grossa
(59) come la pina di San Pietro a Roma,
(60) e a sua proporzione eran l’altre ossa;

(61) sì che la ripa, ch’era perizoma
(62) dal mezzo in giù, ne mostrava ben tanto
(63) di sovra, che di giugnere a la chioma

(64) tre Frison s’averien dato mal vanto;
(65) però ch’i’ ne vedea trenta gran palmi
(66) dal loco in giù dov’ omo affibbia ’l manto.

(67) «Raphèl maì amècche zabì almi»,
(68) cominciò a gridar la fiera bocca,
(69) cui non si convenia più dolci salmi.

(70) E ’l duca mio ver’ lui: «Anima sciocca,
(71) tienti col corno, e con quel ti disfoga
(72) quand’ ira o altra passïon ti tocca!

(73) Cércati al collo, e troverai la soga
(74) che ’l tien legato, o anima confusa,
(75) e vedi lui che ’l gran petto ti doga».

(76) Poi disse a me: «Elli stessi s’accusa;
(77) questi è Nembrotto per lo cui mal coto
(78) pur un linguaggio nel mondo non s’usa.

(79) Lasciànlo stare e non parliamo a vòto;
(80) ché così è a lui ciascun linguaggio
(81) come ’l suo ad altrui, ch’a nullo è noto».

(82) Facemmo adunque più lungo vïaggio,
(83) vòlti a sinistra; e al trar d’un balestro
(84) trovammo l’altro assai più fero e maggio.

(85) A cigner lui qual che fosse ’l maestro,
(86) non so io dir, ma el tenea soccinto
(87) dinanzi l’altro e dietro il braccio destro

(88) d’una catena che ’l tenea avvinto
(89) dal collo in giù, sì che ’n su lo scoperto
(90) si ravvolgëa infino al giro quinto.

(91) «Questo superbo volle esser esparto
(92) di sua potenza contra ’l sommo Giove»,
(93) disse ’l mio duca, «ond’ elli ha cotal merto.

(94) Fïalte ha nome, e fece le gran prove
(95) quando i giganti fer paura a’ dèi;
(96) le braccia ch’el menò, già mai non move».

(97) E io a lui: «S’esser puote, io vorrei
(98) che de lo smisurato Brïareo
(99) esperïenza avesser li occhi mei».

(100) Ond’ ei rispuose: «Tu vedrai Anteo
(101) presso di qui che parla ed è disciolto,
(102) che ne porrà nel fondo d’ogne reo.

(103) Quel che tu vuo’ veder, più là è molto
(104) ed è legato e fatto come questo,
(105) salvo che più feroce par nel volto».

(106) Non fu tremoto già tanto rubesto,
(107) che scotesse una torre così forte,
(108) come Fïalte a scuotersi fu presto.

(109) Allor temett’ io più che mai la morte,
(110) e non v’era mestier più che la dotta,
(111) s’io non avessi viste le ritorte.

(112) Noi procedemmo più avante allotta,
(113) e venimmo ad Anteo, che ben cinque alle,
(114) sanza la testa, uscia fuor de la grotta.

(115) «O tu che ne la fortunata valle
(116) che fece Scipïon di gloria reda,
(117) quand’ Anibàl co’ suoi diede le spalle,

(118) recasti già mille leon per preda,
(119) e che, se fossi stato a l’alta Guerra
(120) de’ tuoi fratelli, ancor par che si creda

(121) ch’avrebber vinto i figli de la terra:
(122) mettine giù, e non ten vegna schifo,
(123) dove Cocito la freddura serra.

(124) Non ci fare ire a Tizio né a Tifo:
(125) questi può dar di quel che qui si brama;
(126) però ti china e non torcer lo grifo.

(127) Ancor ti può nel mondo render fama,
(128) ch’el vive, e lunga vita ancor aspetta
(129) se ’nnanzi tempo grazia a sé nol chiama».

(130) Così disse ’l maestro; e quelli in fretta
(131) le man distese, e prese ’l duca mio,
(132) ond’ Ercule sentì già grande stretta.

(133) Virgilio, quando prender si sentio,
(134) disse a me: «Fatti qua, sì ch’io ti prenda»;
(135) poi fece sì ch’un fascio era elli e io.

(136) Qual pare a riguardar la Carisenda
(137) sotto ’l chinato, quando un nuvol vada
(138) sovr’ essa sì, ched ella incontro penda:

(139) tal parve Antëo a me che stava a bada
(140) di vederlo chinare, e fu tal ora
(141) ch’i’ avrei voluto ir per altra strada.

(142) Ma lievemente al fondo che divora
(143) Lucifero con Giuda, ci sposò;
(144) né, sì chinato, lì fece dimora,

(145) e come albero in nave si levò.


They were known as the Old Man's unit – the most savage section in the whole German army. They were seasoned front-liners – veterans of the trenches. In the deadly cactus forest, Tiny, Porta and the rest found a place God had forgotten ever existed. crawling with snakes, scorpion and giant ants.. a place that reeked of danger and death. When their water rations ran out, they came close to madness from thirst in the blistering hell which surrounded them. There were ready to commit murder for a drinkLEGION OF THE DAMNED 1977 UM LIVRO NOVO 12$00 UM NAVIO CANADIANO APORTOU E UMA MALA DE LIVROS EM 2ª MÃO TROCOU DE MÃOS E O CANADIANO OU AMERICANO LEVOU LOTS OF COMICS UND BOOKS OF PORNOGRAPHY 12 CONTOS DISSE O XICO ESPERTO COM O DÓLAR A 200 ESCUDOS SÃO SÓ 60 DÓLARES NA GUERRA ATÉ OS MORTOS TÊM A SUA UTILIDADE .....AFASTAM AS MOSCAS DOS QUE ESTÃO VIVOS ....HÁ UMA DIFERENÇA TREMENDA ENTRE AS TRADUÇÕES DO JOSÉ SARAMAGO DE LIVROS ALEMÃES OU FRANCESES DO HANS HELMUT E OS LIVROS EM INGLÊS ....The Bloody Road To Death (Legion of the Damned #11....1977 CORGI) PUBLICADO EM PORTUGUÊS ANOS MAIS TARDE COM O TÍTULO ESQUECIDOS DE DEUS PELA EUROPA-AMÉRICA Oubliés de Dieu The story takes place in the Balkan and Greek front lines initially, to finish up on the Eastern front. The plot spins all around the different shenanigans from Porta & company behind the lines, with a lot of surrealistic situations happening. By surrealistic I mean both funny and silly things.There's specially one thing that got me baffled, and that's when a Ferrari sports car is mentioned in a discussion among the soldiers. Given the fact that Ferrari didn't produce their first road car until 1947, how come its name appears in a WW2 conversation??. That's not serious. Other than that, there's a extremely funny story in the book. It's when Porta gets a fur coat packed of fleas, and he is able to sell it to several characters. Most notably to one Oberst who sworn to kill Porta after suffering a massive attack from the fleas.

The Girl Sergeant Attack on Russian tank unit (including female soldiers). Porta gets hold of some coffee. 2. The Via Dolorosa Of Herr Niebelspang Some tank battle stuff. Long, long speech from Porta! 3. Anti-tank Description of anti-tank fighting. 4. Porta Helps The Padre Another long story from Porta. The section retreats in a tank... and then by cow (you need to read that bit). 5. The Tepluschka Descriptions of winter cold and wolf attacks. Description of Finland. Section finds a Tepluschka (rail wagon). Description of food. 6. The Meat Depot One of the great Sven Hassel chapters. Porta and Tiny visit a supplies depot and carry out an inspection. Long description of enormous feast. 7. Before Moscow More fighting. 8. The Mongol Captain Chief Mechanic Wolf makes his big entrance and does some business with Porta. The section goes to Moscow with a group of Brandenburger commandoes. They are led by Vasjli. They attack a tank factory and make the long trip back - managing to spy on a few women along the way. 9. The Generals Depart Big Russian counterattack, retreat, description of booby traps. 10. The Partisan Girl Long retreat through the snow. Visit to Russian village. Foot amputation. Long return through Russian/German lines - lots of wounded (including Sven and others in the section). Hospital train to Poland.

JE NE MANQUE NULLE PART, JE NE LAISSE PAS DE VIDE ....LE TABAC? UNE HERBE QUI GRILLE ..DES GENS QUI AVAIENT DEVANT EUX DIX MILLE SOIRÉES AU CAFÉ QUATRE MILLE OMELETTES DEUX MILLE NUITS D'AMOUR PENDANT SOIXANTE ANS IL AVAIT FAIT USAGE DU DROIT DE VIVRE ...LE VISQUEUX EST L'AGONIE DE L'EAU PAGE 700 TEL QU'EN LUI MÊME ENFIN L´'ETERNITÉ LE CHANGE ......WILL YOU HAVE OIL TO SPILL IN HIGHWAYS HUNDRED YEARS FROM NOW ? DOCTOR WHO CARES? DOCTOR NO...NO

L'ENFANT TIENT SES PARENTS 

POUR DES DIEUX

E DEPOIS CRESCE E TORNA-SE HEREGE 

ILS INCARNENT LA RAISON LA LOI 

LE SENS ET LE BUT DU MONDE 

divendres, 29 de maig de 2015

O NEGRO DO SEU HÁBITO TALAR ABSORVIA E PROLONGAVA A SOMBRA But you can live in the most democratic country on earth, and if you're lazy, obtuse or servile within yourself, you're not free VINO PANE Destiny is the invention of the cowardly, and the resigned.” ― Ignazio Silone, Bread and Wine I, too, in the dregs of my afflictions, have asked myself where is God and why has he abandoned us? Certainly the loudspeakers and bells announcing the new slaughter were not God. Nor were the cannon shots and the bombing of Ethiopian villages of which we read every day in the newspapers. But if one poor man gets up in the middle of the night and writes on the walls of the village with a piece of charcoal or varnish, “Down with the War,” the presence of God is undoubtedly behind that man. QUERES APOSTAR QUE ADIVINHO O TEU NOME? PARA QUÊ? SE ACERTAS É TEMPO PERDIDO PORQUE JÁ O SEI, SE NÃO ACERTAS É UMA MANEIRA ESTÚPIDA DE PASSAR O TEMPO OU DE O PERDER TAMBÉM HÁ MANEIRAS INTELIGANTES DE PERDER O TEMPO MAS ATÉ 2015 NÃO DESCOBRI NENHUMA - QUE TAL VÃO AS COLHEITAS? - MAL....-AQUELE ESPERA UMA BOA SAFRA....PORQUE MENTIU ENTÃO? - PARA NÃO SER VÍTIMA DA INVEJA (OS POVOS DA NOVA GUINÉ E DA NAMÍBIA FAZEM O MESMO É RITUAL AFASTAR A INVEJA E O MAU-OLHADO DE QUE A SORTE VEM ACOMPANHADA


Dictatorship is based on unanimity. It is sufficient for one person to say no and the spell is broken.

Under every dictatorship one man one perfectly ordinary little man who goes on thinking with his own brain is a threat to public order.

The whole of that formidable granite order is imperiled.
Silone’s brand of socialism is not a political ideology but a need to recognize oneself in the destiny of one's neighbor.

dimecres, 27 de maig de 2015

It is of course logically possible to minimize antagonism by minimizing the occasions on which men's paths cross. Thus, the agrarian solution lies in the economic sovereignty of each several owner on his well delimited field, which is equal in size to that of his neighbour. But this is not possible in modern societies, where interests are intertwined as in a Gordian knot The moral seduction of socialism lies in the fact that it repudiates the methodological exploitation of the personal interest motive, of the fleshly appetites, of egoism...insofar as it has endorsed this society's pursuit of ever-increasing consumption, it has become a heterogeneous system, torn by an inner contradiction. "If 'more goods' are the goal to which society's efforts are to be addressed, why should 'more goods' be a disreputable objective for the individual? Socialism suffers from ambiguity in its judgment of values. If the good of society lies in greater riches, why not the good of the individual? If society should press toward that good, why not the individual? If this appetite for riches is wrong in the individual, why not in society? Here, then, is at least a prima facie incoherence, indeed a blatant heterogeneity THE SOCIALIST IDEAL I propose to discuss a predominant preoccupation of our day: the redistribution of incomes. The process of redistribution. In the course of a life- time, current ideas as to what may be done in a society by political decision have altered radically. It is now generally regarded as within the proper province of the State, and indeed as one of its major functions, to shift wealth from its richer to its poorer members. 'An exceedingly complex machinery has grown up piecemeal'1 to provide money benefits, free services, goods and services below cost. This machinery is more extensive than that of public finance, however enlarged as in the operation of rent control. Its purpose is to redistribute incomes and especially, it is generally assumed, the incomes of the richer, which are drained by progressive taxation, and at the same time affected by rent control, limitation of dividends, and requisition of assets. The whole process seems to have taken its impetus in this country exactly forty years ago with Lloyd George's budget for 1909-10, which, in introducing progressive taxation, abandoned the idea that for taxation purposes, equality implies proportionality. The same Chancellor introduced the first sickness and employment benefit schemes. It is to be noticed that 'the policy of bringing about a more egalitarian distribution of income by public finance'1 and by complementary means, which is now so clearly stated as a rule of conduct, has emerged from the process itself. It does not seem to have started as a grand design. Circumstances, above all the two great wars, and social pressures, sustained by strong moral emotion, have brought us gradually to a point where an ethical purpose can be stated: as against previous or extra-western ideals, the West is fast adopting the ideal of the equalization of incomes by State action. Our subject: the ethical aspect. A spirited controversy is now raging on what is termed 'the disincentive effect of excessive redistribution'. It is known from experience that in most cases, though by no means in all, men are spurred by material rewards proportional or even more than proportional to their effort, as for example in 'time and a half'. Making each increase of effort less rewarding than those which preceded it, whilst at the same time lowering, by the provision of benefits, the basic effort necessary to sustain existence, can be held to affect the pace of production and economic progress. Thus the policy of redistribution is subject to heavy fire. The attack, however, is made on grounds of expediency. Current criticism of redistribution is not based on its being undesirable but on its being, beyond a certain point, imprudent.James Edward Meade: Planning and the Price Mechanism ( London, 1948), Documenting the process by which government and controlling majorities have grown increasingly powerful and tyrannical, Bertrand de Jouvenel demonstrates how democracies have failed to limit the powers of government. This development Jouvenel traces all the way back to the days of royal absolutism, which established large administrative bureaucracies and thus laid the foundation of the modern omnipotent state.

champions of redistribution deny that there are limits to what can be achieved, if it is proposed, as they wish, to maintain economic progress. This whole conflict of which so much is made today is a borderline quarrel, involving no fundamentals.
I propose to skirt this field of combat and shall assume here that redistribution, however far it may be carried, exerts no disincentive influence, and leaves the volume and growth of production entirely unaffected. This assumption is made in order to centre attention upon other aspects of redistribution. To some the assumption may seem to do away with the need for discussion. If it were not going to affect production, they will say, redistribution would have to proceed to its extreme of total equality of incomes. This would be good and desirable. But would it? Why would it? And how far would it? This is my starting-point.
Dealing with redistribution purely on ethical grounds, our first concern must be to distinguish sharply between the social ideal of income equalization and others with which it is sentimentally, but not logically, associated. It is a common but ill-founded belief that ideals of social reform are somehow lineal descendants of one another. It is not so: redistributionism is not descended from socialism; nor can any but a purely verbal link be discovered between it and agrarian egalitarianism. It will greatly clarify the problem if we stress the contrasts between these ideals.
Land redistribution in perspective. What was demanded in the name of social justice over thousands of years
was land redistribution. This may be said to belong to a past phase of history when agriculture was by far the major economic activity. Yet the agrarian demand comes right down to our own times: did not the First World War bring in its train an ample redistribution of land over all of Eastern Europe? Was not the cry of land redistribution Lenin's chief slogan in Russia, though used with a view to promoting a very different revolution? Again, should we not remember that land redistribution in East Prussia was a major issue at the end of the Weimar Republic, and that Brüning fell for much the same reason as the elder Gracchus? Thus the idea should not appear to us as an archæological curiosity. It is with us to this day, it agitates Italy at this moment;1 and, as we shall see, the feeling which lends it strength is a basic one in social ethics.
It is the idea that all men should be equally endowed with natural resources from which to draw produce (i.e. income) in proportion to their toil.
There is authority for it in the Bible. In the first instance land is to be apportioned by lots2 and any emergent inequality in the holdings is to be redressed at the jubilee, when each seller of land is to be restored in possession of the lot he alienated.3 This return to the initial position every forty-nine years precludes the formation of latifundia, and restores equality of land holdings between families. The ideal of entailed holdings for members of families related by blood or name, however accounted for, is a fundamental one in ancient Indo-European society. With it there generally goes
the practice of frequent redistribution of strips according to numbers within the group. Thus the claims of agrarian reformers seem to have rested upon age-old tradition and to have appealed to an ancestral feeling of rightness.
Land redistribution not equivalent to redistribution of income. There is a clear contrast between redistribution of land and redistribution of incomes. Agrarianism does not advocate the equalization of the produce, but of natural resources out of which the several units will autonomously provide themselves with the produce. This is justice, in the sense that inequality of rewards between units equally provided with natural resources will reflect inequality of toil. In other words, the role played by inequality of 'capital' in bringing about unequal rewards is nullified. What is equalized is the supply of 'capital'.
Now the idea of eliminating the influence of capital from functions determining income is not an archaic one: it runs right through social thought at all times. When Marx said that value was made up of labour only, he was in fact resorting by wishful thinking to a state of affairs which seem inherently right. That the idea of rewards in proportion to the contribution made was a basic one with the classical economists is plain enough: they were concerned to show that this would be the outcome of a perfectly competitive system, and to them the initial distribution of property was always a disturbing factor.
Agrarian reformers are often claimed by the socialists as their forerunners. They are not; but the two groups
do have one preoccupation in common: both want to eliminate the effect of an unequal distribution of property.
This of course does not imply--even on the assumption of a strictly equal initial supply of capital-- any equality of incomes. These would anyhow follow the well-known laws of dispersion. Drawing a curve, the abscissae of which represent the amount of incomes and the ordinates the number of economic units enjoying these amounts, we should obtain the well-known Gaussian bell-shaped curve, but, as Professor Pigou points out,1without the skewness given to this curve by the unequal distribution of property. Thus the agrarian principle is fair reward and not equality of incomes.
Equalization of land assets: how far similar to and how far different from equalization of capital. We have been led to reformulate the agrarian principle in modern terms as demanding equalization of the supply of capital. However, that is a generalization which tends to distort what agrarian reformers have in fact historically claimed. They thought in terms of land redistribution and were usually chary of including among the things to be redistributed such capital assets (as we should call them) as tools or equipment. Although a complete redistribution would seem called for to ensure that rewards are related strictly to immediate achievement, they were prone to exclude tools. Perhaps this was due to an essential difference perceived
'natural resources' and 'capital'. Land (and this applies to natural resources in general) was thought of as offered by God to men, not to be engrossed by any of their number, while tools are man-made and can legitimately be passed on. It may perhaps be regarded as significant that in many primitive communities the transfer of land can only be effected by the transfer with it of some very personal object, as if in this way it might assume the characteristics of personal property,1 though it is not so by nature.
Thus agrarian egalitarianism may be said to embody two notions: one that natural resources are not to be engrossed, the other that fair rewards can be obtained only when the supply of capital is evenly spread out. These notions are far from irrelevant in the modern world. The former was invoked only recently by Mussolini, when he proclaimed the right of the poorer nations to an equal share in the world's natural resources: that this proved to be an effective propaganda theme testifies that the idea is deeply ingrained. Furthermore, the feeling that the true way to social justice lies in some redistribution of capital is the basic ingredient of all reforming schemes set up against the collectivist programme: these seek to make the agrarian principle applicable to modern societies: this is what Chesterton advocated. The secret of achieving it in practice has not been found, but many
____________________
1
The seisin would consist among the Veddas of a flint and steel, of a tooth ( C. G. Seligmann and Brenda Seligmann: The Veddas, Cambridge, 1911, pp. 113-17), or of a stone, which may be taken to deputize for a piece of personal property. Similar types of seisin are found in many primitive societies.

1 A. C. Pigou: The Economics of Welfare ( London, 1920)
 In this concise and elegant work, first published in 1952, Bertrand de Jouvenel purposely ignores the economic evidence that redistributional efforts sap incentives and are economically destructive. Rather, he stresses the commonly disregarded ethical arguments showing that redistribution is ethically indefensible for, and practically unworkable in, a complex society.

A new introduction relates Jouvenel's arguments to current discussions about the redistributionist state and draws out many of the points of affinity with the works of Buchanan, Hayek, Rawls, and others

There is a tyranny in the womb of every Utopia.,,,,,It is passing strange that our philosophers of the Revolutionary period should have formed their conception of a free society by reference to societies where everyone was not free - where, in fact, the vast majority were not free. It is no less strange that they never stopped to ask whether perhaps the characters which they so much admired were not made possible by the existence of a class which was not free. Rousseau, in whose philosophy were many things, was fully conscious of this difficulty: "Must we say that liberty is possible only on a basis of slavery? Perhaps we must No century has been more concerned than ours to do away with war: it has proved signally unsuccessful. All too little attention has been given to the phenomenon that internal politics have become increasingly more warlike

Command is a mountaintop. The air breathed there is different, and the perspectives seen there are different, from those of the valley of obedience. The passion for order and the genius for construction, which are part of man's natural endowment, get full play there. The man who has grown great sees from the top of his tower what he can make, if he so wills, of the swarming masses below him.“Historians of the sentimental school have sometimes regretted that royalty became absolute, while at the same time rejoicing that it installed plebeians in office. They deceive themselves. Royalty exalted plebeians just because it aimed at becoming absolute; it became absolute because it had exalted plebeians

Ransack the history of revolutions, and it will be found that every fall of a regime has been presaged by a defiance which went unpunished. It is as true today as it was ten thousand years ago that a Power from which the magic virtue has gone out, falls. Bertrand De Jouvenel, On Power ...Power is linked with war, and a society wishing to limit war's ravages can find no other way than by limiting the scope of Power Where will it all end? In the destruction of all other command for the benefit of one alone - that of the state. In each man's absolute freedom from every family and social authority, a freedom the price of which is complete submission to the state. In the complete equality as between themselves of all citizens, paid for by their equal abasement before the power of their absolute master - the state. In the disappearance of every constraint which does not emanate from the state, and in the denial of every pre-eminence which is not approved by the state. In a word, it ends in the atomization of society, and in the rupture of every private tie linking man and man, whose only bond is now their common bondage to the state. The extremes of individualism and socialism meet: that was their predestined course.

No state can remain indifferent to another state's wresting from its people more of their rights. It must make a corresponding draft on its own people's rights, or else pay dearly for its neglect to put itself on a level...

A Power which interferes with its people only in certain respects cannot increase its warlike potential beyond certain limits. To pass them, it must revolutionize those respects and give itself fresh prerogatives.

We are ending where the savages began. We have found again the lost arts of starving non-combatants, burning hovels, and leading away the vanquished into slavery. Barbarian invasions would be superfluous: we are our own HunsA society of sheep must in time beget a government of wolves. Bertrand De JouvenelLes progrès matériels que nous avons faits tiennent à la mise en œuvre de forces naturelles : car il est bien vrai que nos moyens physiques sont très faibles et, relativement à notre taille, bien plus faibles que ceux des fourmis. Aussi J.B. Say avait-il raison de noter qu’Adam Smith s’égare « lorsqu’il attribue une influence gigantesque à la division du travail, ou plutôt à la séparation des occupations ; non que cette influence soit nulle, ni même médiocre, mais les plus grandes merveilles en ce genre ne sont pas dues à la nature du travail : on les doit à l’usage qu’on fait des forces de la nature Arcadie, Essai sur le mieux vivre (coll. « Futuribles ») by Bertrand de Jouvenel Review by: Jean Masini Revue Tiers Monde Vol. 12, No. 47, LE TIERS MONDE EN L'AN 2000 Power changes its appearance but not its reality.” ― Bertrand De Jouvenel, On Power tags: power 4 likes Like “As every advance of Power is useful for war, so war is useful for the advance of power; war is like a sheep-dog harrying the laggard Powers to catch up their smarter fellows in the totalitarian race.

Nous faisons preuve de myopie lorsque  nous négligeons de nous intéresser à l’entretien et à l’amélioration de notre infrastructure fondamentale : la Nature. Voilà un héritage que nous laisserons en piètre état à nos successeurs. Pourquoi avons-nous été si peu soigneux ? Parce que la Nature fournit gratuitement ses services productifs, et par conséquent, la nature ne fait pas partie de nos actifs. (…) Je me suis souvent demandé si, pour redresser les erreurs dans lesquelles nous jette notre manière de penser, nous ne devrions pas rendre aux rivières ce statut de personnes qui était le leur aux époques païennes. L’homme de notre civilisation ne se regarde point comme gardien de notre demeure terrestre ; il est fier d’en être le pillard habile et irresponsable. A cet égard, il est en recul moral relativement au « manant » qu’il méprise. Le manant avait soin de son coin de terre, et les générations successives ont imprimé au paysage rural une beauté plus touchante que les joyaux de nos musées.
 « Une autre manière de penser, c’est de transformer l’économie politique en écologie politique ; je veux dire que les flux retracés et mesurés par l’économiste doivent être reconnus comme dérivations entées sur les circuits de la Nature. Ceci est nécessaire puisque nous ne pouvons plus considérer l’activité humaine comme une chétive agitation à la surface de la terre incapable d’affecter notre demeure. Comme notre pouvoir sur les facteurs naturels s’accroît, il devient prudent de les considérer comme un capital. Parce que la Comptabilité Nationale est fondée sur les transactions financières, elle compte pour rien la Nature à laquelle nous ne devons rien en fait de payement financier, mais à laquelle nous devons tout en fait de moyens d’existence. Le terme d’infrastructure est à présent populaire, il est bon d’avoir donné conscience que nos opérations dépendent d’une infrastructure de moyens de communication, transport, et distribution d’énergie. Mais cette infrastructure construite de main d’homme est elle-même superstructure relativement à l’infrastructure par nous trouvée, celle des ressources et circuits de la Nature

diumenge, 24 de maig de 2015

Sir Edward Sandys, the treasurer, proposed to the Virginia Company to send over a freight of young women to become wives for the planters. The proposal was applauded, and ninety girls, * young and uncorrupt,' were sent over in the ships that arrived this year (1620,) and the year following, sixty more, handsome and well recom- mended to the company for their virtuous education and demeanor. The price of a wife at the first was one hundred pounds of tobacco ; but as the number became scarce, the price was increased to one hundred and fifty pounds ; the value of which in money was three shillings per pound. This debt for wives it was ordered should have the precedency of all other debts, and be first recoverable." The Rev. Mr. Weems, a Virginian writer, intimates that it would have done a man's heart good to see the gallant young Virginians hastening to the water side, when a vessel arrived from London, each carrying a bundle of the best tobacco under his arm, and taking back with him a beautiful and virtuous young wife. So late as in the year 1732, an act was passed at Maryland, making tobacco a legal tender at one penny a pound, and Indian corn at twenty-pence a busheL Afterwards gold and silver became more plentiful. In 1652, a mint was established in New England, for coining shillings, sixpences, and three-penny pieces. In 1645, Virginia prohibited dealings by barter, and established the Spanish piece of eight, as six shillings, as the standard currency of that colony. In all the colonies the money of account was the same nominally as in England, but the coin was chiefly Spanish and Portugueze. But different colonies aflBlxed various values to the dollar. In South Carolina, the dollar was estimated at 45. 8rf. — in Virginia and New England, at 65. — in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland, at Is. 6d. — and in New York and North Carolina, at 85. Paper money was first issued by the STATe of Massachusetts in 1690. Horsley Pahner's Pamphlet upon the *' Causes and Consequences of the Pressure on the Money Market THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF AMERICAN BANKING. Tobacco, corn, and Wampompeag used ag money, 1. — Paper money, called continental money, issued during the war for independence, 3.— Bank of North America chartered, 4. — ^Constitutionality of a National Bank, 5. — The first bank of the United States, 7. — Suspension of cash payments, 8. SECTION II. THE BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. THE HISTORY OF BANKING IN AMERICA: WITH AN INQUIRY HOW FAR THE BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF AMERICA ARE ADAPTED TO THIS COUNTRY ; AND A REVIEW OF THE CAUSES OF THE RECENT PRESSURE ON THE MONEY MARKET. BY JAMES WILLIAM GILBART, GENERAL MANAGER OF THE LONDON AND WESTMINSTER BANK. LONDON: LONGMAN,, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMAN. MDCCCXXXVII.My chief object in doing this has been to repel the charges brought against the Joint Stock Banks. In noticing the other causes to which the recent pressure has been assigned, I have contented myself with transcribing the sentiments of other writers. As the publication of Mr. Horsley Palmer has been " looked upon as a sort of official document, embody- ing the views and opinions of the directors generally," it may be proper to inform the reader, that the work now before him conveys only the individual opinions of the author.and ascends with equal ease to the examination of the elementary principles. His account of the nature of joint stock banks, of branch banks, of deposit, remittance, cir- culation, and discount, of cash credit, loan and savings banks, will be found by men of business to be of considerable value for reference.'* —Atlas, Feb. 24, 1834. " We have been highly pleased with its agreeable and instructive character, and we thiuk that no man connected with trade should be without this book." — Monthly Review, May, 1834. " As the author most truly says in his preface, the aim of this book is to impart useful knowledge. Those who are ignorant of the art, or rather science of banking, (for banking may be considered as a science in political economy) will here obtain a knowledge of facts and princijles which will sufficiently, enlighten their minds on the subject, and they will have the good fortune of not having principles instilled which may lead them into error. The question of currency, cash payments, &c. which have been such a source of labyrinthic litigation are not mooted. It is a clear and well written work, and must have been written by a person endowed with a ludd head and an impartial VDmdi:'— Metropolitan Magazine, August, 1834 The History and Principles of Banking" should be in the hands of every man, who wishes to be acquainted with the manner in which the money transactions of this great country are earned on." — Wotterford Chronicle^ June 9, 1 836. 2. The History of Banking in Ireland. '^ It affords a succinct view of the acts of parliament, through which the banking operations of Ireland wei^e affected from the time of Henry VI. to the present day, shewing briefly the main features of the monetary system in that country. June 19, 1836. . The paper money issued by Congress during the war of the Ame- rican independence, experienced no sensible depreciation before the year 1776, and so long as the amount did not exceed nine millions of dollars. A paper currency, equal in value to that sum in gold and silver, could therefore be sustained so long as confidence was preserved. The issues were gradually increased during the ensuing years, and in April, 1778, amounted to thirty millions. A depreciation was the natural consequence ; but had the value of the paper depended solely on its amount, the whole quantity in circulation would have still been equal in value to nine nuUions, and the depreciation should not have been more than 3^ to 1 ; instead of which, it was then at the rate of six dollars in paper for one silver dollar, and the whole amount of the paper in circulation was worth only five millions in silver.

Qualifications of directors,
Defect in the law of England relative to joint 
stock banks that stop payment, 77. 
— Limited liability considered, 78. — 
The district system of banking, 81.
 Advantages of the branch system of banking, 83. — 
Loans by the banks to the government, 88. — 
Banks giving security for their notes, 90.
Appointment of directors by the government, 92. — 
Taxes upon banks, 93. — 
Periodical returns to the government, 94. — 
Annual publication of a balance sheet
 
 According to an estimate by the register of the 
treasury in 1790, the issues of continental money 
were as follows : — 

OLD EMISSION. NEW EMISSION. 

Dollars.. 

In 1776 20,064,464 ....66  

1777 26,426,333 

1778 66,965,269 ....34 — 

1779 149,703,856 ----77 — 

1780 82,908,320 ....47 891,236 80 

1781 11,408,095 — 1,179,249 — 
 
 On the 31st May, 1781, the continental notes 
ceased to circulate as money, but they were afterward
bought on speculation at various prices, from 400 for 
one, up to 1,000 for one. 

In the year 1781, the Congress granted a charter tp 
be called the " Bank of North America." It was accord- 
ingly established in Philadelphia, and commenced bttsi+ 
ness on Jan. 7, 1782. It obtained a charter of incor- 

. poration upon the ground that it would offer assistance^ 
to the States in carrying on the war. So profitable 
was the business that the early dividends were at the 

' rate of 12 to 16 per cent, per annum. 
Upon an allegation 
that the bank had produced evil effects, its charter was 
repealed in Sept. 1785, by the state government of 
Pennsylvania ; 
but it continued its business, claiming 
the right to do so under the act of Congress.
 In 1787, 
the bank was re-incorporated, and has been continued 
to the present day. Its operations are confined how*^ 
ever to the state of Pennsylvania. 

Récréations économiques, ou Lettres de l'auteur des Représentations aux magistrats à M. le Chevalier Zanobi, principal interlocuteur des Dialogues sur le commerce des blés. MON PORTUGUAIS PENSENT ÊTRE RICHE À JAMAIS POUR LUY (LUI) ET POUR LES SIENS S'EN VINT LE L'ENDEMAIN (LENDEMAIN ) RETROUVER SON HOMME ET LUI FAIT MONTRER D'UNE GRANDE BOETTE TOUTE PLEINE DE EMERAUDS ET LUI EN OFFRENT UNE POUR LA PEINE.... LE DENIER ROYAL Traité curieux de l'or et de l'argent. Scipion de Grammont. Toussaint Du Bray, 1620 VENDIDO UM MILHAR DE CONTOS EM LISBOA DÉCADA DE 90 ...É DUVIDOSO QUE TENHA SIDO PAGO IMPOSTO SUCESSÓRIO NUMA BIBLIOTECA E PINTURAS VÁRIAS QUE RENDEU MILHÃO E MEIO DE CONTOS ALGURES NUMA ÉPOCA EM QUE MILHÃO E MEIO DE CONTOS INDA COMPRAVAM UM JOGADOR DE FUTREBOL DOS MÉDIOS E UMA COLECÇÃO DE NUMISMÁTICA E SELOS QUE ORÇOU PELOS 300 MILHÕES DE ESCUDOS PASSA LÁ ISSO EM ÉCU'S? SAMOVAR RUSSO DOIS QUILOS DE OURO DO SÉCULO XVIII 35000 CONTOS LIVRES DE IMPOSTOS COM E O OURO NEM CHEGAVA A DOIS CONTOS A GRAMA ....MOEDAS DE 100 DÓLARES NUGGET UMA ONÇA TROY CADA ....35 ROLOS DE 20 MOEDAS CADA ...700 MOEDAS A 59 CONTOS E DUZENTOS ESCUDOS CADA A PREÇO DE COMPRA FORAM VENDIDAS AS 700 POR 50 MILHÕES DE ESCUDOS E PAGAS EM MAÇOS DE NOTAS COM UM TAL DE EGAS MONIZ 100 NOTAS POR CADA MAÇO MAIS DE 50 MAÇOS POIS HAVIA MUITOS MAÇOS SÓ COM NOTAS DE 5 CONTOS ...OS CARREGADORES LEVARAM UMA NOTA DO EGAS MONIZ CADA UM E MAIS UNS TROCOS ...E ERAM TÃO HONESTOS TÃO HONESTOS QUE NEM GAMARAM NADA 12 PESSOAS GASTARAM QUASE DOIS MILHÕES DE CONTOS DOIS MIL MILHÕES DE ESCUDOS EM ANTIQUALHAS NUMA LISBOA DO SÉCULO XX ...O SÉCULO DO OURO PORTUGUEZ E DOS DOZE 8 ERAM PORTUGUEZES DOIS CASTELAÑOS UM IANQUE E UM FROG NEM UM INGLÊS DIZEM QUE ESTAVAM EM CRISE .Essai analytique sur la richesse et sur l'impôt, 1767; by Graslin, Jean Joseph Louis IMPOSTO ? ONDE? NEM IRS ? É UM MERCADO MUITO LIVRE ...D' IMPOSTOS L'abondance ou la rareté rela- tive de la monnaie n'influe pas sur la valeur de la masse de monnaie considérée in globo ; ceci résulte et de l'axiome qui vient d'être énoncé et du théorème I. Mais comme la quantité demonnaie en circulation et sa valeur globale se divisent entre les divers objets à échanger, le nombre de ces derniers restant le même, s'il y a plus de monnaie on en donnera plus pour CHAQUE OBJECT.e diviseur demeurant inchangé et le dividende s'étant accru, le quotient de monnaie sera plus fort, les prix hausseront. Ils havisseront de même si la quantité de monnaie restant la même il y a moins d'objets à échanger. Ils baisseront, au contraire, s'il y a moins de monnaie la quiintité de marchandises étant la même, ou plus de marchandises la quantité de monnaie demeurant ce qu'elle était auparavant EXEMPLAIRE IMPRIMÉ SUR GRAND PAPIER PORTANT LES ARMOIRES DU LIEUTENANT GÉNERAL DE POLICE DE PARIS ....ENSAIO ONDE SE ENSINA QUE A FUGA AOS IMPOSTOS É GIGANTESCA E ONDE SE EXPLICA QUE OS GENERAIS CONSEGUEM FAZER MUITO GUITO SABE-SE LÁ COM QUÊ ....FELIZMENTE A FROTA PORTUGUESA ESTÁ DECADENTE SENÃO TAMBÉM HAVIA SENHORES ALMIRANTES .....ESSAI SUR L'ÉTAT ACTUEL DE L'ADMINISTRATION DES FINANCES ET DE LA RICHESSE NATIONALE DE LA GRANDE-BRETAGNE ...DAS FINANÇAS PORTUGUESAS VAMOS CONTINUAR A SER SUBSIDIADOS E A ACUMULAR DÉFICITES OU DÉFICIT TANTO FAX ...ANDA PESSOAL PELAS RUAS COM RÁDIO-TELEFONES PARA FAZEREM CHAMADAS NOS LEILÕES DE FALÊNCIAS PEDRO CALDEIRA CONTINUA COM UMA GRANDE CASA E TUDO VAI BEM NO REYNO DE PUTOGALHO É UM PAÍS DO CARVALHO ...O MARQUÊS SEBASTIÃO JOSÉ ...CONDE DE OEIRAS NESTE POMBAL NACIONAL HÁ QUEM VIVA BEM HÁ QUEM SOBREVIVA MAL ET CAETERA E TAL

LE PAPE VOUDRAIT IL RENDRE AVIGNON

POUR QUARANTE MILLE FLORINS

CHARROY DE BOEUFS DOUZE DENIERS  

LAPIN DIX DENIERS

POULE SIX DENIERS 

MANOUVRE DE BRAS QUATRE DENIERS

LE PAN DEUX SOULS (DEUX SOUS)

FAISAN VINGT DENIERS 

PIGEON UN DENIER

CHARRETEE DE BOIS DOUZE DENIERS

QUELLE CONCLUSION TIRE ON DE CECI (NO ORIGINAL CECY)?

QUE TOUT EST PLUS CHER(E) 

...MAINTENENT 

DE DIX VINGT TRENTE FOIS 

CHEVREU DIX-HUIDT (HUIT ) DENIERS
La valeur dérive donc du besoin. 
Graslin distingvie : 
Le valeur absolue qui est la valeur d'une seule 
chose par rapport au besoin et une valeur
 relative ovi vénale qui est la 
Valeur d'une chose par rapport à une autre. 
La valeur relative 
Su vénale se mesure par le rapport existant 
entre les valeurs 
Absolues de chacune des deux choses
 
 

Sans doute, si 
e prix est inférieur au coût de production, 
la production se 
restreignant, 
la valeur vénale tendra par la suite à hausser : 
nais c'est la rareté, non le coût de production, 
qui est alors 
a cause déterminante de cette hausse,


dijous, 21 de maig de 2015

THE CATATONIC OVERLORDS - DESCONHECIAM O DRAMA DO CEARÁ, QUE A TODOS ULTRAPASSAVA ...NO DESERTO ATÉ AS FERAS ERAM RARAS...NO SERTÃO VIVIAM HOMENS....SEDENTOS FAMINTOS ALCANÇAVAM UM DIA A CAPITAL DO ESTADO QUE SE MIRAVA SOBRE A RIBA ATLÂNTICA E DAÍ PARTIAM PARA A NOVA ODISSEIA UNS RUMO AO SUL À TERRA ROXA DE SÃO PAULO ONDE FLORIA O CAFÉ Eu devia este livro a essa majestade verde, soberba e enigmática, que é a selva amazónica, pelo muito que nela sofri durante os primeiros anos da minha adolescência e pela coragem que me deu para o resto da vida. E devia-o, sobretudo, aos anónimos desbravadores, que viriam a ser os meus companheiros, meus irmãos, gente humilde que me antecedeu ou acompanhou na brenha, gente sem crónica definitiva, que à extracção da borracha entregava a sua fome, a sua liberdade e a sua existência. Devia-lhes este livro, que constitui um pequeno capítulo da obra que há-de registar a tremenda caminhada dos deserdados através dos séculos, em busca de pão e de justiça. A luta de cearenses e de maranhenses nas florestas da Amazónia é uma epopeia de que não ajuíza quem, no resto do Mundo, se deixa conduzir, veloz e comodamente, num automóvel com rodas de borracha - da borracha que esses homens, humildemente heróicos, tiram à selva misteriosa e implacável.

OUTROS, QUASE TODOS CABEÇA 

VOLTADA AO AMAZONAS 

ONDE HAVIA TRADIÇÃO DE OPULÊNCIA

E EXEMPLO DE PÁRIAS 

QUE VOLVERAM RICOS  
 Sim, a selva era bela, majestosa, mesmo deslumbrante. E era rica, havia de ser fantasticamente rica também, mas um dia – um dia que vinha ainda longe. Entretanto, toda a sua grandeza esmagaria, toda a sua deslumbrância seria volúpia do primeiro contacto, logo desvanecida pela monotonia; e os anónimos desbravadores iriam caindo, inexoravelmente, sob as febres, trespassados pelas flechas envenenadas, desvairados pela ausência do amor – escravos, pobres, miseráveis, ali onde a natureza erguia as suas mais fastigiosas pompas!


CADA PALMO QUE DESABROCHAVA 

ERA SEMPRE A ESPERANÇA 

DE UM FUTURO MELHOR

dimarts, 19 de maig de 2015

I EAT THE FLESH OF LIVING MEN ....NOW I EAT MY FACE IS PALE LIKE A SPECTER OR SPECTRE EU DEVO COMER O ALIMENTO OFERECIDO POR BAKBANALIMICHISIWAE O PRIMEIRO A COMER O HOMEM NA EMBOCADURA DO RIO The name Kwakiutl is derived from Kwagu'ł—the name of a single tribe of Kwakwaka'wakw located at Fort Rupert. The anthropologist Franz Boas had done most of his anthropological work in this area popularized the term for both this tribe and the collective as a whole. The term became misapplied to mean all the tribes who spoke Kwak'wala, as well as three other indigenous peoples whose language is a part of the Wakashan linguistical group, but whose language is not Kwak'wala. These peoples, incorrectly known as the Northern Kwakiutl, were the Haisla, Wuikinuxv, and Heiltsuk. "Kwakiutl" is considered a misnomer by most of the peoples it is applied to; they prefer to be called the Kwakwaka'wakw, which means Kwak'wala-speaking-peoples. One exception is the Laich-kwil-tach at Campbell River; they are known as the Southern Kwakiutl, and the tribal council they are in is the Kwakiutl District Council.

KWAKIULT KAWAKIUTL CANTO DA 

SOCIEDADE CANIBAL

MEU ROSTO PÁLIDO COME A CARNE 

DOS VIVOS  those tribes they were organized into extended family units or na'mima, which means of one kind. Each 'na'mima' had positions that carried responsibilities and privileges. Each tribe had around four 'na'mima', although some had more, some had less.
All Kwakwaka'wakw follow their genealogy back to their ancestral roots. A head chief, who through primogeniture could trace his origins to that 'na'mima's ancestors, would delineate the roles throughout the rest of his family. Every clan had several sub-chiefs, also ranking forth, who gained their title and position through their own families group primogeniture. Organizing to harvest the lands which were part of the property owned by that family was done by these chiefs.
Kwakwa'wakw society was assembled into four classes:the nobility, attaining through birthright and connection in lineage to ancestors, the aristocracy who attained status through connection to wealth, resources, or spiritual powers which all would be displayed or distributed in the potlatch, the commoner, and the slaves. On the nobility class, "the noble was recognized as the literal conduit between the social and spiritual domains, birth right alone was not enough to secure rank: only individuals displaying the correct moral behavior  throughout their life course could maintain ranking status."

Property

As in other Northwest Coast peoples, the concept of property was well developed and important to daily life. Territorial property such as hunting or fishing grounds was inherited, and from these properties material wealth was collected and stored

Economy

A trade and barter subsistence economy formed the early stages of the Kwakwaka'wakw economy. Trade was carried out between internal Kwakwaka'wakw nations, as well as surrounding aboriginal nations such as the Tsimshian, Tlingit, the Nootka and Coast Salish peoples. 

 My father owned the land and was a mighty Chief; now it is mine. And when your man-of-war comes, let him destroy our houses. Do you see yon trees? Do you see yon woods? We shall cut them down and build new houses and live as our fathers did. We will dance when our laws command us to dance, and we will feast when our hearts desire to feast.

dissabte, 16 de maig de 2015

the popularity of the short skirt becomes evident. Lady Diana Manners sums up the same skirt controversy in the Winning Post (London) in one deathless sentence: "If you ask me what should be the length of the skirt, you must first tell me what you are going to do in itIt was either Olaf or Aristophanes who once said: "No one ever reads a preface." So, this must not be construed as a preface — merely a beginning on Whiz Bang's August eruption of farmyard fun and foolishness. Someone pointed to the corrugations on my brow the other day and asked me how it was possible for me to sit down and pound out "phunney" stuff when I seemed to be so busy starting my new magazine, "True Confessions," be- sides attending to all the multitudinous details of running a modern farm. It is, indeed, a bold thing for a backward hayseed to sit down in the midst of statistics on hog cholera, spavin and asparagus beetles and try to '?&n a humor publication. But my friend is mistaken when he thinks that the rollicking, rosy-cheeked, happy-go-lucky fellow knows more of the deepest depths of humor than any other type of human. Usually the antithesis is true. A gloomy looking man once called upon a doctor friend of mine for treatment.. After an examination the doctor said: "You are suffering from Hypochondria. You need someone to make you laugh. Go and hear Fogarty at the Orpheum tonight." "I am Fogarty," replied his gloomy looking visitor. No matter what the filosophy of the matter is, the fact remains that the men of the most delicious wit ofttimes have the most pronounced tinge of seriousness. It is a strange alliance — yea, a paradoxical one — and leads me to express the hope that my Whiz Bang friends will find this August periodical of fun just as piquant and zippy as its prede- cessors even though Captain Billy h-as been suffering from temporary spare-time dyspepsia. — Skipper Bill, HUMOR is a peculiar life's potion. It is the relaxing of the nervous sys- tem; the bright sunlight into which folk may escape when the sweet singers of calamity begin yodeling and when profession "l mourners start shedding borrowed tears. It is an invaluable ingredient in the dish of friendship. Switching the metaphor, it is the grease that keeps the wheels of companionship from creaking. Every once in a while I hear from some sec- tion of the country that someone is objecting to several pocket-sized publications and invariably Whiz Bang is included in them. That is be- cause Whiz Bang is the best known. No fanatic ever ha^ 1 a sense of humor. It is the man 03 woman who cannot see a joke and who has nq humor in his makeup who is so apt to make a mountain out of a mole-hill and push a principle to the verge of idiocy. Whiz Bang is not in the world to hurt the sensibilities even of these rare types. Its pur- pose is to show people the humorous side of life; to be admonitive only when constructive and then without bitterness. In short, Whiz Bang stands for a subtle, wholesome war on Old Man John Yawn and his half-brother, Jim Grouch. Our little monthly periodical goes by Uncle Sam's mail as second-class matter and I would like to have every critic of the small sized magazines peruse us carefully and compare us with some which go by express and with which Whiz Bang seems to be confused — passing judg- ment after such perusal and not before. To be candid, it is your Uncle Billy's humble opinion that the person who cannot forget pov- erty and pain over the pages of our dispenser of farmyard foolishness is on the road to the madhouie. SIMULTANEOUSLY with the appearance on the news stands of this copy of Whiz Bang will appear the first issue of True Confessions, another child of the family — a baby brother to Whiz Bang. As a loving father I cannot afford to show any partiality toward either of my children; but Whiz 3ang now has outgrown its babyhood, while True Confessions still is in its swaddling clothes. Besides, it is only natural, and surely pardonable, for a parent to exhibit pride, not unmixed with curiosity, when he receives an ad^'tion to his family. he ghost of Hamlet's father confessed he cc ..d a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up the soul, freeze young blood, make eyes, like stars, start from their spheres, and make each particular hair to stand on end like quills upon the fretful porcupine; but then declared, "I am forbid to tell the secrets of my prison-house * * * to ears of flesh and blood."

MARVELOUS things are promised for us 
farmers with the practical development 
of radio dynamics. AccoiJing to John 
Hays Hammond, Jr., we will soon be milking 
the cows, bedding down the Pomeranians, 
setting the guinea hens and plowing the south 40 
by means of the invisible reins from the 
heavens. 

It will be the bantam rooster's left tonsil — 
as the vaudeville jokesters say — when Olaf, my 
ploughboy, can sit on the fence beside a can of 
snoose and tell the gang-plow where to head 
in merely by doing a little table tapping o \e 
barb wire with a 20-penny spike. 

The possibilities of ether vibration also are 
great in the way of bringing music, instruc- 
tion and oratory to the hayseed's fireside. I 
can picture Maggie, the cook, Ikey and Olaf 
and the rest of my hand-assorted farm folk and 
parchesi players gathered around a wireless 
trumpet after the noon lunch listening to a 
dramatic reading of a Sears-Roebuck catalog 
or a song "When the Corn Harvest Is Bloom- 
ing," written by some famous chiropodist. 

Unless the scientists have been looking too 
long at the moon, this radio business will make 
old-fashioned agriculture look like one of 
Paine's ring-tail spasms. Home life on the 
farm will be something besides Maggie grab- 
bing two brooms like a pair of oars and rowing 
herself through lakes of farmyard fungi, 
flanked by milk pails, dirty overalls, feather 
dusters and other implements of comfort de- 
struction. 

All that will be done by wireless as soon as 
the weather gets cool enough for the radio 
experts to think without getting palpitation of 
the antennae. 

I have never bragged much about my rural 
Eobbinsdale bungalow since I came back from 
my trip to the West Coast last fall. Out in Los 
Angeles I spent an evening with my oil friend, 
Eobert Henderson, in his Los Angeles mansion 
and Bob has the finest layout I have ever sp^n. 
As I sunk up to my shoe tops in Turkish rugs 
I couldn't help but admire the Japanese for 
wanting to come over and pick the currants out 
of our cake. However, even if we simple coun- 
try folk don't have fountains in the sun room 
and statues of Pan playing a saxaphone solo 
on a thermos bottle stuck around in our front 
parlors — home is where your heart is. This 
wireless business ought to bring the Whiz Bang 
farm closer to Robbinsdale and that in itself 

is enough to make my farmyard domicile 
sparkle like an effervescent bottle of apple 
juice. 

What is prettier to look at than that? You 
don't have to drink it. 

Wherefore, I say, bring on the radio plow- 
ing; the radio-furnace and the self -cranking 
ouija boards even though it does mean mid- 
night recitals by amateur radio reserves, com- 
bined with national casket makers' statistics 
and interpolated remarks by W. J. Bryan on 
"The Office Socks the Man." 



AFTER a dame has paid eight bucks for a 
pair of stockings, you can't blame her for 
showing $7.50 worth of them. 



AN INDIAN from the Leech Lake Reserva- 
tion near Breezy Point recently toted a 
winsome copper-colored maiden to the 
sky-pilot at Pequot to get married. The min- 
ister asked the bride-to-be if her "big chief" had 
any property. Her answer was: 
"Nothing." 

"And you, are you any better off?" 
Again a negative reply. 
"Then what on earth do you want to get 
married for?" queried the reverend gentleman. 
"Him got blanket. Me got blanket. Too 
damn cold sleep one blanket." 



WITH the advent of summer the farm and 
woodland warblers are in full song. 
Which probably is why I met Olaf com- 
ing around the house the other night. "What 
have you been doing there?" I asked my Swed- 
ish Svengali. "Listening," replied Olaf. "At 
What?" "Listening to the cook 'Oo' was Olaf's 
quite unanswerable explanation. If there were 
any cooks-ooing about at that time of the night 
they should have been in their cook-oo clocks 
getting some sleep. 

It has struck me, anyway, that the cook-oos 
and the buzzing and feathered folk have an 
exaggerated idea of when the day begins. Long 
before dawn the cocks start the morning sym- 
phony with their lusty crowing. This seems to 
awaken envy in all the melody makers. You 
hear the br-r-r of the flicker; the blackbird fol- 
lows with his liquid music; the jolly little wren 
is on hand with his morning twitter; the blue- 
winged jay softens his call a little to welcome 
the daybreak, while in the background there 
echoes the busy chirp of the ever-present spar- 
row and the soft melody of another wonderful 
bird, Pedro junior, calling to his twenty wives. 

That little pest, the mosquito, is up so early 
he meets himself going to he* My Irish farm 
hand,Ikey, has the mosquito A cch so badly that 
I noticed when he was eating Maggie's hot 
cakes the other morning he scratched his cakes 
and poured the syrup down his back. Ikey 
must have been out listening to the cook-oos, 



also, or else the Robbinsdale mosquitoes have 
special relish for kosher meat. Anyway, his 
nose folds up now like a patent golf bag car- 
rier and his eyes look like wormholes in a 
snow drift. He blames his Scotch plaid expres- 
sion partially on the mosquitoes and partly on 
Neighbor Sol Markee's 22-year-old son, Alf. 
Alfred came over disguised as an alms giver 
on a food train and hornswaggled Ikey into a 
$10 bet on his game cock against Neighbor 
Markee's pet eagle. 

According to Ikey's description of the fight 
by rounds, the first went to the eagle by the 
flick of a talon. In the second the eagle 
knocked Ikey's entry for a row of hand-painted 
chicken coops and after he had him down he 
bit one of the game cock's feet off. Ikey lost 
his $10 and his rooster is out a foot. That ex- 
plains why my farm-hand is madder than a 
woodpecker on a marble tree and why his dis- 
position squeaks like a dry axel. 

THE night after the game cock incident 
Tom Howard, of the Howard Lumber 
Company, Robbinsdale, dropped in for a 
round of bridge and Ikey was invited to make 
a fourth. Heart r v eing led, he threw away a 
club. 

"Failing?" asked Tom Howard, his partner. 
"Don't drag in business," retorted my He- 
brew hay handler. 






AMES J. JEFFRIES' and Dick Ferris' new, 
religion is certainly liberal enough, with 
wine, tobacco and dancing allowed. Now 
if only they will announce "no collections," the 
empty church problem will be solved. 

Here's hoping Whiz Bang readers will soon 
address me as "Apostle Bill." My application 
for Minnesota Apostolic appointment is wait- 
ing approval of Messrs. Jeffries and Ferris, 

et al. 

* * * 

MINNEAPOLIS clothier is advertising 
suits for small boys "with the pants cut 
wide at the bottom 'flapper style.'" If 
it hadn't been for the advertisement some of us 
hicks from the farms and small towns wouldn't 
know to this day just what kind the flappers 
are wearing. 

 



E ARE contemplating a boxing tourna- 
ment on our farm with a "beautiful 
lamp" as a trophy. 



THE modern American college should be 
given credit for teaching our young men 
the proper system for asking for money 
from home in such a diplomatic manner that 
we old codgers consider it an honor to give it 
to them. 



T MAY be called a hair net but a lot of poor 
fish get caught in it.